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Psychology Unit 5

Cognition the mental processes involved in gaining knowledge and comprehension
Memory the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Recall bringing forth information that has previously been remembered
Recognition determining whether information has been seen or learned before
Relearning how much more quickly information is processed or learned when it is studied again after it has already been learned but forgotten
Encode getting information in
storage the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval the process of getting information out of memory
sensory memory iconic and echoic
iconic memory fleeting photographic/visual (1/5 of a second)
echoic memory fleeting auditory (3-4 seconds)
Automatic Processing unconscious encoding of incidental information
parallel processing doing many things at once (as opposed to serial processing like a computer)
Effortful Processing encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
spacing effect over time
serial position effect recall best the first and last items in list, primacy and recency effects
Chunking Organizing items into a familiar manageable list
Semantic Memory remembering the meaning of a situation rather than the specific details
Episodic memories personally experienced events
Procedural memory retention independent of conscious recollection
skills motor and cognitive
Hippocampus and frontal lobe processes explicit memories for storage
cerebellum and basal ganglia implicit memories
Amygdala flashbulb memories
Long term potentiation (LTP) increase in synaptic firing
See a poster about a missing child, then see an adult and a child walking don the street, more likely to think possible kidnapping priming
Context dependent memory remembering is dependent upon environment
people who hide money while drunk sometimes can't find it until they are drunk again state dependent memory
"Forgetting" encoding failure
Retrograde Amnesia cannot retrieve past information
Anterograde Amnesia cannot form new memories
Retrieveal failure having something on the tip of your tongue
Proactive interference prior learning disrupts recall of new information
Retroactive interference new learning disrupts recall of old learning
Repression banish uncomfortable memories
Reconsolidation retrieved memories are altered
Concept categories of ideas, objects, events with common properties
prototype best example of a category
convergent thinking narrow down to the best solution
divergent thinking consider new ideas, options
algorithms step by step procedure to find a solution
heuristics thinking strategy for quick judgements and problem solving
Insight frontal lobe activity
Fixation cannot see new perspective
mental set use same approach to problems
Availability heuristic Estimating likelihood of an event based on mental availability
Representative heuristic what fits the prototype
Framing the way an issue is prosed or worded
Language spoken, written, signed words
phonemes the smallest unit of sounds
morphemes smallest unit with meaning
Grammar language rules
Receptive Language ability to understand
linguistic determinism language shapes basic ideas
hard language language determines how you think
soft language language influences how you think
Fluid Intelligence global capacity to reason
Crystalized Intelligence Prior learning and past experiences
Intelligence definition ability to learn from experience, solve problems, use knowledge to adapt to new situations
General Intelligence underlies all mental abilities
Factor Analysis identifies clusters of related items (factors on a test)
L.L Thurstone critic of spearman, used 56 tests to identify 7 primary mental abilities
Howard Gardner multiple intelligences
Sternberg three intelligences, practical, creative, analytical
Savant Syndrome Limited mental ability-low intelligence score specific skill genius
Emotional/social intelligence understanding and navigating social situations
Emotional intelligence (perceive) reconizing others' emotions
Emotional intelligence (Understanding) predicting and why they are there
Emotional intelligence (Managing) how to express emotions, respond to others
Emotional intelligence (Using) Creative thinking
Intelligence test assesses mental aptitudes and compares them with others
Aptitude test predict future performanc, capacity to learn
Achievement Tests show what you have learned
Francis Galton attempted to measure "natural ability"
Alfred Binet Measured general aptitude, measure intelligence based on development
Lewis Terman Intelligence Quotient/ Stanford-Binet test
David Wechsler Wechsler Adult Intelligence Score
Principles of Test Construction standardization/ comparison with a pre-tested group
Flynn Effect gradual rise in IQ over time
Reliability how consistent results are
Content Validity does the test measure what it is supposed to
Predictive Validity does the test predict future behavior
Cross sectional study different groups compared at the same time
longitudinal study same group compared over time
Phase 1 Cross sectional evidence- people of different ages are compared with one another conclusion- decline of mental ability with age is part of general aging process
Phase 2 Longitudinal- follows and retests the same people over time cohort testing shows intelligence is stable until late in life
Phase 3 intelligence is more than one trait intelligence declines after 85
Fluid intelligence reason speedily and abstractly decreases slowly from 20s - 75 then drops off
Crystallized intelligence accumulated knowledge, social wisdom increases through age
Heritability proportion of variation among individuals in a group that can be attributed to genes
Twins intelligence scores for identical twins raised together nearly as similiar as one person taking the same test twice
Growth mindset Ability+ opportunity+motivation=success
Group differences (gender) girls tend to outperform in... spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects
Group Differences (gender) boys tend to outperform in... spatial ability, complex math problems
Group differences girls are better emotional detectors/ more sensitive to touch, taste, and color
Gender differences takeaway gender differences in intelligence are partly cultural/social
Genetics=... validity
_______________ is similar for women, men, diverse ethnic/income backgrounds predictive validity
Stereotype threat self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
Predictable world biases tend to perceive order where no order exists
Just word hypothesis/bias assumption that people get what they deserve based on the belief that the world is fair
________ are categories or groupings of linguistic information, images, ideas, or memories, such as life experiences. concepts
________ encompasses the processes associated with perception, knowledge, problem solving, judgment, language, and memory. cognition
Samara meets a nurse. She immediately assumes he is able to help care for sick people, works long hours, and dispenses advice about illness because her ________ schema suggests that nurses behave this way. role
Which term refers to the vocabulary of a language, or the words contained within that language? lexicon
A(an) ________ is a basic sound unit of a given language. phoneme
A ________ is the smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning. morpheme
Which term refers to the process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words? semantics
What is the confirmation bias? focusing on information that confirms your existing beliefs
Gonzalo is trying to open his door using the auto lock button. He continues to push the button even though it is likely that the auto lock feature has stopped working, will need to open the door with his key. This is a mental set
Carmela believes her assistant, Lian, is incompetent. She notices only what Lian does wrong while ignoring the above average quality of most of her work. This exemplifies ________ bias. confirmation
The analytical intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence is demonstrated by the ability to ________. analyze, evaluate, judge, compare, and contrast
Who developed the triarchic theory of intelligence? Robert Sternberg
Kai cuts her foot while hiking. She forgot to pack bandages, but she has a tube of superglue and uses that to seal the wound. Kai’s ability to invent a solution uses the ________ intelligence component of the triarchic theory of intelligence. creative
Anwar is hiking in the woods and he gets lost. He spends several days lost, but he has the knowledge to live. He is also able to identify food growing that he can eat safely. Anwar is demonstrating ________ intelligence from the triarchic theory. pracitcal
Nima excels at working with numbers in subjects such as calculus and algebra. This exemplifies ________ intelligence from the multiple intelligences theory. logical–mathematical
Aram is proficient in playing a number of instruments and can easily learn new songs and rhythms. This exemplifies ________ intelligence from the multiple intelligences theory. musical
Jake is considerate of his friends’ moods. He identifies with their feelings and readily understands their point of view, he has great relationships with his classmates and professors. Which area of the multiple intelligences model does this exemplify? interpersonal
The type of intelligence that involves seeing complex relationships and solving problems is ________ intelligence. fluid
In Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Theory, ________ intelligence and ________ intelligence are often combined into a single type: emotional intelligence. interpersonal; intrapersonal
What kind of professional would be most qualified to administer an intelligence test? A professional trained in psychology.
Which individual was asked by the French government to create an assessment tool – an intelligence test, of sorts – that would be used to identify schoolchildren who would be more likely to have difficulty in school? Alfred Binet
The practice of administering, scoring, and interpreting an assessment tool in the same manner is called ________. standardization
Which statistic is a measure of how data are dispersed in a population and can be used to give context to larger data sets? standard deviation
What is the Flynn effect? The observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation.
An intelligence score that falls below ________ indicates significant cognitive delays, and may be indicative of an intellectual disability. 70
Which pair of individuals is most likely to have the highest similarity in their IQ scores? identical twins
What did the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart suggest about intelligence? The findings from this study ________. revealed a genetic component to intelligence
What would be true of a thermometer that always reads three degrees lower than the actual temperature? It is reliable but not valid.
What is the benefit of standardizing and intelligence test? To provide the basis for comparing scores against a pretested group.
Howard Gardner found evidence of multiple intelligences in individuals who scored low on intelligence but had an area of exceptional ability-for example, to make complex calculations. These people had savant syndrome
Which of the following is one of Robert Sternberg's types of intelligence? practical intelligence
Researchers studying the effects of genes on intelligence have found that intelligence is affected by many genes working together
If Lanie is able to tell when her husband is upset by noticing subtle changes in his facial expressions, she might be said to have a high degree of emotional intelligence
Heritability of intelligence refers to the amount of group variation in intelligence that can be attributed to genetics
The most widely used modern intelligence test was developed by David Wechsler
Students who do well on college entrance exams generally do well in their first year of college. This helps establish that these exams have predictive validity
The purpose of Alfred Binet's early intelligence test was to predict how children would do in school
The original formula for a child's intelligence quotient compared a child's mental age to his or her chronological age
If the scores on an intelligence test form a normal curve with a standard deviation of 15, the mean, median, and mode are 100 68 percent of scores are between 85 and 115
If approached on the street by a stranger and asked to make a guess about their IQ score, your best guess would be 100
Created by: sophiesoup13
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