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RS: RS Proposal

DPT 710 Preparing the RS Proposal

QuestionAnswer
Identification and delimitation of problem.Falls under which category? QUALITY RESEARCH
Searching, reviewing, and effectively writing about relevant literature.Falls under which category? QUALITY RESEARCH
Specifying and defining testable hypotheses.Falls under which category? QUALITY RESEARCH
Designing the research to test the hypotheses.Falls under which category? QUALITY RESEARCH
Selecting, describing, testing, and treating participants.Falls under which category? QUALITY RESEARCH
Analyzing and reporting results.Discussing the meaning and implications of the findings.Falls under which category? QUALITY RESEARCH
PREPARING A PROPOSALPURPOSE OF PROPOSAL Delimits and describes Purpose of StudyDescribes Importance of Research QuestionDescribes the variables to be studiedDescribes the Research ProtocolDefines the population to be studiedJustifies the Feasibility
RESEARCH OBJECTIVESMust be clarified through a: -Purpose statement-Specific aims-A hypothesis statement
TYPES OF OBJECTIVES Evaluate measuring instrumentsDescribe populations or clinical phenomenaExplore relationshipsMake comparisons between groups
The choice of one of these types of objects will: -Frame the research design-Determine the types of data collection-Determine the appropriate data analysis
SPECIFIC AIMS Are the objectives or goals of the study
CHAPTER SECTIONS TitleAbstractIntroduction/Background InfoReview of LiteratureMethodsSubjectsInstrumentationData AnalysisReferences
WRITING STYLE Statement of Problem (present)Background Information (past)Methods Section (future)
TITLEPurpose:  Reflects the content of the study succinctly and to the point
ABSTRACT • Summary of the project• Highlights purpose and importance• Includes brief description of methods– Subjects/Participants– Procedures• Usually no more than one page
CONTENTS OF THE INTRODUCTION Background Information/literature reviewProblem StatementHypothesis (if appropriate)Operational DefinitionsSignificance/justification
INTRODUCTION NARRATIVE Intro background infoExplains the rationale behind studyAcquaints the reader with the probCreates interestBrings out areas of needed researchLeads to statement of the problem and purpose of the research studyContains the stat and RS hypoth
THE RESEARCH PROBLEM Identify Area to InvestigateLearn What Has Been PublishedFigure Out How to Conduct the Investigation
PROBLEM STATEMENT Identifies the specific variables in the study (all of them)The PURPOSE of the study expressed as the STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMSentence structure and syntax
MAKING THE STATEMENT Clarifies the scope of the studyDelineates what will be testedShould be clear and conciseFocuses development of the designIdentifies variables to be studied
THE PURPOSE STATEMENT Concise statement that tells the reader why the study is being done“The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of pulmonary dysfunction on activities of daily living in those with Parkinson’s disease”
SUMMARYPROBLEM = broad framework for the Study
SUMMARYPURPOSE = examine specific RESEARCH QUESTION
SUMMARYQUESTION = specific approach to understanding the PROBLEM
THE HYPOTHESIS Deduced from theory or induced from other empirical studiesBased on logical reasoning and predicts the outcome of the study
TYPES OF HYPOTHESES The Null Hypothesis (statistical hypothesis)The Research Hypothesis (the expected results)
HYPOTHESESHR: The expected results
HYPOTHESESHO: Statistical test
STATING THE HYPOTHESIS- which has correlation or no correlation? Ho: no difference or no correlationHr: states differences or correlationOne-tailed versus Two-tailed
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Defines a variable according to its unique meaning within the studyDVs are defined by describing the method of measurementIVs are operationalized according to how they are manipulatedMust differentiate the various levels of the IVs
The Independent Variable (IV) - Predictor or “cause” variable- Causes change in the DV
Categorical or moderator variable - IV that cannot be manipulated- AKA attribute variable eg., age, sex, race
The Dependent Variable (DV) - Outcome, response or effect variable- DV is a function of the IV
Control Variable(s) A factor that possibly influences study results
Extraneous Variable(s) Can affect relationship between IV & DVUsually brought out in the discussion section
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEComparative Study IV is controlledIV has at least 2 levelsDV is measuredDoes not have levelsCan have multiple DVs
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEPredictive Study Is the IV predictive of the DVRegression modules
INDEPENDENT VARIABLEComparative Study IV = Type of Exercise Level 1 = no exercise Level 2 = aerobic exerciseIV1 = Type of exercise (active variable) Level 1 = no exercise Level 2 = aerobic exerciseIV2 = Sex (attribute variable) Level 1 = male Level 2 = female
SELECTION CRITERIA WorkabilityCritical MassInterestTheoretical ValuePractical Value
WORKABILITY Do you have the resources? Do you have the subjects? Can you answer the problem? Is the methodology manageable and understandable?
CRITICAL MASS Is the problem of sufficient magnitude and scope to fulfill the requirement? Are there enough variables? Enough Potential results? Enough to write about?
INTEREST Are you interested in the topic? Does it relate to your background and career interests? Will you learn something useful?
THEORETICAL VALUE Does it fill a gap in the literature? Will others think it important? Will it advance the field? Does it improve the “state of the art”? Is it publishable?
PRACTICAL VALUE Will it improve clinical practice? Are clinicians going to be interested in the results? Will PT be changed by the outcome. Will your own clinical practice change as a result?
Why SEARCH & REVIEW THE LITERATURE Identify the ProblemDevelop the HypothesisDevelop the Methods
6 STEPS Write the Problem StatementConsult Secondary SourcesDetermine DescriptorsSearch Preliminary SourcesRead and Record LiteratureWrite the Literature Review
Write the Problem Statement Write the statement as completely yet concisely as you can at this time.
Consult Secondary Sources textbooks; internet;*review paper
Determine Descriptors Keywords/terms that help you locate sources pertaining to the topic.Write down problem statement then formulate cogent descriptors and keywords.
Search Preliminary Sources Abstracts; Computer searches
Read and Record Literature Statement of ProblemCharacteristics of the participantsInstruments and tests used (reliability and validity)Testing proceduresIV and DVTreatment applied to participants (if any)Design and statistical analysesFindingsQuestions raised for fu
Write the Literature Review Intro Body Summary and Conclusions
METHODS SECTION specifies: “Specifies how data will be collected and analyzed to validate or refute the statistical hypotheses or. . . describe the phenomenon being studied.”
FORMULATING THE METHOD The purpose of this section is to explain how the study is to be conductedDescribe the PARTICIPANTSDescribe the INSTRUMENTSOutline the PROCEDURESDetermine the DESIGN & ANALYSIS
BASIC ASSUMPTIONS Fundamental premises that exist for all studiesThe researcher must assume that certain conditions exist
Delimitation Is imposed by the researcherA choice the researcher makes to define a workable research problemInclusion and exclusion criteria
Limitation Possible shortcoming or influences that cannot be controlledResults of the restrictions imposed by the researcher
PARTICIPANTS Detailed description of subject characteristicsThe number of subjects to be includedRecruitment plans for obtaining subjectsType of sampling proceduresInclusion/exclusion criteriaHow assigned to groups
INSTRUMENTATION Describe instruments to be usedGive the reliability & validity of eachAre the instruments avail?Can you admin the instruments?Do you know how to eval the results obtained?Will the range of scores be reasonable?How much time will it take to use
PROCEDURES Provides a detailed description of how data will be collectedShould include enough information so that any capable researcher could replicate the study
Explanation of procedures includes: Who will collect data and/or do the treatment?What is the intra or interreliability for the measurements to be taken?What instructions will be given to subjects?What data collection forms will be used?What are the timeframes for data collection &
COLLECTING THE DATA When will data be collected?Where will data be collected?How often will data be collected?How much time is required to collect data for each participant?Have you developed a scheme for data acquisition, recording, and scoring?
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Research questions & hypothesis will determine the best designThe appropriate data analysis will be determined by:Study designLevel of measurement of DVsNumber of subjects
STUDY DESIGNStates the type of research design for the studyMay include: DescriptiveCase-studyExperimentalQuasi-experimentalQualitative
DATA ANALYSIS Explains how the data will be analyzedExplains the proposed application of the statisticMay include:Descriptive statisticsCorrelational techniquesHypothesis-testing techniques
PILOT WORK Important to show feasibility of studyImportant to show your capabilitiesImportant to debug the procedures
Created by: NicoleB