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Adverse drug reaction (ADR) Any unexpected, obvious, change in a patient's condition that the physician suspects may be due to a drug.
Alternative medicine Herbal supplements, megavitamins, and other non-traditional remedies.
Drug manufacturer The company responsible for developing, producing, and distributing pharmaceutical products.
Drug order A course of medication therapy ordered by the physician or dental practitioner in an organized health care setting.
Drug use process Organized, complex, & controlled system of manufacturing, purchasing, distributing, storing, prescribing, preparing, dispensing, administering, using, controlling, & monitoring a drug's effects & outcomes to ensure that drugs are used safely & effectively
Drug wholesaler The company responsible for delivering medication, medical devices, appliances, etc. to pharmacies and retailers.
Formulary A listing of drugs of choices as determined by safety, efficacy, effectiveness, and cost, and approved by the medical staff for use within the institution.
Group purchasing An arrangement where pharmaceutical companies ship large quantities of drugs to the warehouses of hospital buying groups.
IV admixture An intravenous solution to which medications are added.
Kardex A card for each patient in a folder noting his or her pharmacy profile and medication orders.
Laminar flow hood A sterile work area with positive pressure air flow that filters the air.
Medication-related problems (MRPs) Undesirable events a patient experiences involving drug therapy that interfere with a desired patient outcome.
Non-adherence Forgetting or purposefully not taking medications as prescribed. Also known as noncompliance.
Pharmaceutical care The direct, responsible provision of medication-related care for the purpose of achieving definite outcomes that improve a patient's quality of life.
Retailer The company responsible for delivering products to patients.
Side effects Known effects of a drug experienced by most people taking the drug; these are usually minor.
Unit dose A single-use package of a drug. In this type of distribution system, a single dose of each medication is dispensed prior to the time of administration.
Bioengineered therapies The process used in the manufacture of therapeutic agents through recombiant DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) technology.
Group purchasing organizations (GPOs) A group of hospitals or pharmacists that buys drugs directly from the manufacturer.
Just in time (JIT) An inventory strategy to minimize inventory levels, thus minimizing typing up larger sums of the money.
Materials management The division of a hospital pharmacy responsible for the procurement, control, storage, and distribution, of drugs and pharmaceutical products.
Prime vendor A drug wholesaler who contracts directly with hospital pharmacies for the purpose of their high volume pharmaceuticals.
Therapeutic equivalent A drug product that when administered in the same amount, will provide the same therapeutic effect and pharmacokinetic characteristics as another drug to which it is compared.
Turnover rate The rate of drug inventory is calculated by dividing the total dollars spent to purchase drugs in one year by the actual pharmacy inventory dollars.
What are the three main types of drug distribution in an institution? Floor stock, IV, and unit-dose.
Which type of drug distribution is prefered in an institution? Unit-dose.
Pharmacy profile All the information that is needed on a particular patient.
What are the three sources that a patient's drug order can be verified by? Pharmacy computer, Kardex, and the doctor's order.
What are the three sets of medication records for each patient? The doctor's order, the pharmacy patient profile, and the nursing Kardex.
How does one verify which error occurred if the patient's unit-dose drawer is not correct. By going back to the doctor's original order.
An item that is sterile means That it is one hundred percent free from bacteria.
Everything about the IV must be sterile because Medication is going directly into the bloodstream.
Aseptic Germ-free.
Where must any IV product be prepared? In a laminar flow hood.
When should IV additive solutions be prepared? Just before they are needed and refrigerated between the time they are prepared and the time they are used.
Where are decentralized pharmacies located and what purpose do they serve? In strategic locations in the hospital, serving several patient care units.
Why are the decentralized pharmacies faster than centralized pharmacies? Because decentralized pharmacies are located on the floors directly related to the patients and their needs.
What are the advantages of decentralized pharmacies? Faster service, more service, and more opportunity for staff pharmacists to deliver pharmaceutical care on the floors.
Give an identical phrase for therapeutic treatments: Drug treatments.
All patient counseling should be done by: A licensed pratitioner or licensed pharmacist.
When should patient counseling be done by a pharmacy technician? Never!
The interaction between acetaminophen & alcohol is called what? Drug-drug interaction.
Most accurate method of medication administration: Nurse-administered.
Drug wholesalers: Deliver medication.
Unit-dose: Patient-ready.
Most numerous method of medication administration: Self-administered.
Drug manufacturers: Develop and produce.
Antihistamine and drowsiness: Side effects.
The drug use process is used to: Distribute the drug.
A sterile work area with a positive pressure airflow: Laminar flow hood.
More serious effects not experienced by every patient taking the drug: Adverse drug reactions.
A listing of drugs of choice: Formulary.
Drug wholesalers: Deliver medications to other retailers.
Retailers: Deliver pharmaceutical products to the patient.
Nurse reminder: Kardex.
Noncompliance: Either forgetting or purposely not taking medication.
Experienced by most: Side effects.
A medication order written by a legal prescriber: Drug order.
A unit-dose is: A dose ready to be given to the patient.
Noncompliance or non-adherence Not taking medication
Over-the-counter drugs Self-medication
Alternative medicine Herbal supplements
Minor annoying effects felt by most Side effects
Although some hospitals can buy directly from the manufacturer, most buy their medication through an arrangement called: Group purchasing.
True or false. The dispensing of medication is much more than just the medication and the label. True.
True or false. No matter who gives the medication, it is easy to make an error like giving the wrong drug, giving too much drug, or giving too little drug. True.
What are the three sets of medication records for each patient? Doctor's order, pharmacy patient profile, and nursing Kardex.
Since most drug wholesalers handle controlled substances, they must also have which type of license? Drug Enforcement Agency License.
Retailers: Community pharmacy.
The most common drugs on floor stock are: Narcotics, antibiotics, and emergency drugs.
Who should not perform duties that require clinical judgement? Pharmacy technicians.
What is the organized, complex, and controlled process used to distribute the drug product and make it available for use? Drug use process.
This is the way most medication is taken. Self-administered.
The most effective way to improve medication compliance is by understanding what? Why the patient is not taking medication as prescribed.
What percent of Americans take at least one prescription medication each day? Forty-six percent.
Which country has the most complex, yet the most efficient drug distribution system in the world? The United States.
It is now recommended by ASHP and Joint Commission standards that IV admixtures be prepared using: Aseptic technique and a laminar air flow hood.
Safe, effective, timely, and cost-effective drug therapy delivered with care is considered what? Quality drug therapy.
The nurse uses the Kardex as a reminder of: What, when, and to whom to administer medication.
What are the three primary systems for dispensing drugs in hospitals and other organized health care settings? Floor stock, unit-dose, and centralized IV admixtures.
Who should alert the pharmacist when a patient needing help is observed in the OTC area? The pharmacy technician.
A formulary is a listing of: Drugs of choice approved by the medical staff and for use within the organizaton.
What should be processed just before they are needed and refrigerated between that time of preparation and use? IV additive solutions.
What is the first step of the drug use process? Manufacturing.
True or false. Pharmacy technicians should learn methods to discover if there has been noncompliance and alert the pharmacist. True.
Most hospitals buy their medications through an arrangement called what? Group purchasing.
An example of bioengineered therapy is: Epoetin Alfa.
Procurement: Drug selection.
What department is responsible for the procurement of medications? Pharmacy.
Turnover rate: Good measuring method.
A good method of measuring the overall effectiveness of the purchasing and inventory control programs is known as: The turnover rate.
Protection: Light-resistant container.
Light-resistant containers: Protect the contents from the effects of light.
Strategy: Just-in-time.
Just-in-time is: An inventory strategy used to minimize typing up large sums of money.
Materials management is: A way of controlling costs associated with a pharmacy.
Warehouse: Prime vendor.
A prime vendor relationship is with: A distributor of pharmaceuticals who warehouses all drugs froms various drug manufacturers.
Cooperative: Group purchasing organizations.
Group purchasing organizations are: A cooperative of many hospitals.
Drug shortage: Overwhelming economic pressure.
Therapeutic equivalent: Generic for brand.
Recapture: Unused medication.
Formulary: Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee.
Temperature, ventilation, humidity, light, and sanitation are what type of factors when considering storage and transport of drugs? Environment conditions.
As a result of increased cost for health care services and a decrease in resources to pay for them, it has become essential for: Pharmacy department managers to assess cost containment in all aspects of pharmacy service.
What type of program includes procurement, drug shortage, and inventory control, repackaging and labeling considerations, distribution systems, and recapture and disposal? Institutional pharmacy materials management program.
The degree of supervision by a pharmacist will vary, depending on: The ability of the technician and the policy of the pharmacy department.
The offfical list of drugs available is known as the hospital formulary and is: Reviewed and modified on an ongoing basis as required.
The pharmacy department's objective review includes: Cost analysis information, which is an important factor in this age of cost containment.
According to the president of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices, early studies show that bar coding should reduce the number of medication errors by what percent? Fifty percent.
What type of relationship is with a distributor of pharmaceuticals who warehouses all drugs from various manufacturers? Prime vendor.
What committee approves all drugs and therapeutics agents that will be available in the institution? The Pharmacy Therapeutics Committee.
Materials management: Controlling costs associated with a pharmacy.
Group purchasing organizations: Cooperative of many hospitals.
Just-in-time: Inventory strategy to minimize inventory cost.
Therapeutic equivalent: Generic product matches brand name product.
Guidelines for the evaluation of drugs are provided by the: ASHP Guidelines.
What organization requires that internal and external medications be stored separately to reduce the potential for selecting the wrong one? The Joint Commission.
Although cost savings associated with the use of generic drugs has proven to be of great value, selection is made based on what criteria? Quality assurance of the product.
Who determines if the generic product is a therapeutic equivalent of the brand name product? The pharmacist.
What is one major factor that impacts drug shortages? Overwhelming economic pressure.
The procurement of medications is the responsibility of what department? The pharmacy department.
Group purchasing allows each participating hospital the benefit of: Quantity discounts as a result of pooling the projected quantities of each hospital.
The overall responsibility for the materials management of pharmaceuticals in a hospital lies with the: Director of the pharmacy.
The degree of supervision by a pharmacist will vary depending on: The policy of the pharmaceutical department.
What type of inventory strategy helps to minimize typing up large sums of money for long periods, and helps to reduce costs associated with inventory management? Just-in-time.
Created by: Goldilox



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