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Study Guide #1

Introduction to Film

Close-up A detailed view of a person or object, usually without much context provided. a close-up of an actor generally includes only his or her head.
Telephoto Lens: A lens that acts as a telescope, magnifying the size of objects at a great distance.
Extreme long shot: A panoramic view of an exterior location, photographed from a great distance, often as far as a quarter-mile away.
Long Shot: A shot that includes an area within the image that roughly corresponds to the audiences view of the area within the proscenium arch in the live theater.
Full Shot: A type of long shot that includes the human body in full, with the head near the top of the frame and the feet near the bottom.
Extreme Close-up: a minutely detailed view of an object or person.
Deep Focus Shot: A technique of photography that permits all distance planes to remain clearly in focus, from close-up ranges to infinity.
Establishing Shot: usually an extreme long shot or long shot offered at the beginning of a scene, providing the viewer with the context of the subsequent closer shots.
Over the Shoulder Shot: A shot that usually contains two figures, one with his or her back to the camera, the other facing the camera.
Wide-Angle Lens: A lens that permits the camera to photograph a wider area that in a normal lens.
Angle: That camera's angle of a view relative to the subjects being photographed. a high angle shot is photographed from above; a low angle from below the subject.
Eye Level Shot: the placement of camera approximately five to six feet from the ground, corresponding to the height of an observer on the scene.
Set-up: The positioning of the camera and lights for a specific shot.
Crane Shot: The shot taken from a special device called a crane, which resembles a huge mechanical arm. The crane carries the camera and the cinematographer and can move in virtually any direction.
Point Of view Shot: Any shot that is taken from the vantage point of character in the film, showing what the character sees.
Cinematographer: the artist or technician responsible for the lighting of a shot and the quality of the photography.
Take: A variation on a specific shot. the final shot is often selected from a number of possible takes.
Genre: A recognizable type of movie, characterized by certain pre-established conventions.
High key: A style of lighting emphasizing bright and even illumination, with few conspicuous shadows.
High Contrast: A style of lighting emphasizing harsh shafts and dramatic streaks of lights and darks.
Low Key: A style of lighting that emphasizes diffused shadows and atmospheric pools of light.
Three Point lighting: A common technique of lighting a scene from three different sources. Sources include a key light, fill lights, and backlight.
Key Light: The main source of illumination for a shot.
Dominant: that area of the film image that compels the viewers most immediate attention, usually because of a prominent visual contrast.
Fill Lights: Secondary lights that are used to augment the key light- main source of illumination for a shot. Fill lights soften the harshness of the key light, revealing details that would otherwise be obscured in shadows.
back light: When the lights for a shot derive from the rear of the set, thus throwing the foreground figures into semidarkness or silhouette.
Lens: A ground or molded piece of glass, plastic, or other transparent material through which light rays are refracted so they converge or diverge to form the photographic image within the image.
Overexposure: Too much light enters the aperture of camera lens, bleaching out the image.
Painterly Style: A visual style emphasizing soft edges, lush colors, and a radiantly illuminated environment, all producing a romantic lyricism.
Linear Style: A visual Style emphasizing sharply defined lines rather than colors or textures. Deep-focus lenses are generally used to produce this hard-edged style, which tends to be objective, matter-of-fact, and anti-romantic.
Film Noir: French term - Literally,black cinema- referring to a kind of urban american genre that sprang up after world war 2, Emphasizing a fatalistic, despairing universe where there is no escape from mean city streets, loneliness, and death.
Filters: Pieces of glass or plastic placed in front of the camera lens that distort the quality of light entering the camera and hence the movie image.
Rack Focusing: The blurring of focal planes in sequence, forcing the viewer's eyes to travel with those areas of an image that remain in sharp focus.
Fast Stock: Film stock that's highly sensitive to light and generally produces a grainy image.
Slow Stock: Film Stocks that are relatively insensitive to light and produce a sharpness of detail.
Optical Printer: An elaborate machine used to create special effects in movies.
Double Exposures: the superimposition of two literally unrelated images on film
Multiple Exposures: a special effect produced by the optical printer, which permits the superimposition of many images simultaneously.
Star: A film actor or actress of great popularity
Footage: Exposed film stock.
StoryBoarding: A pre-visualization technique in which shots are sketched in advance and in sequence.
Realism: A style of filmmaking that attempts to duplicate the look of objective reality as its commonly perceived, with emphasis on authentic locations and details, long shots, lengthy takes and minimum of distorting techniques.
Frame: The dividing line between the edges of the screen image the enclosing darkness of the theater. Can also refer to a single photograph from the filmstrip.
Formalistic: A style of filmmaking in which aesthetic forms take precedence over the subject matter as content. Formalists are often lyrical, self-consciously heightening their style to call attention to it as a value for its own sake.
Experssionism: Distorts time and space as ordinarily perceived essential characteristics not necessarily on their their superficial appearance. Editing, Angles, Lighting Effects, Distorting lenses and special Effects.
Classical Cinema: A vague but convenient term used to designate the style of mainstream fiction films produced in america, roughly from the mid-teens until the late 1960's
Shot: Those images that are recoreded continuously from the time the camera starts until the time it shops. That is , an unedited strip of film.
Medium Shot: A relatively close shot, revealing the human figure from the knees or waist up.
Created by: Meimdante
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