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psychology final


cognitive activities private mental processes, such as thoughts and memories
sociocultural perspective examines the effects of factors such as ethnicity, gender, culture, and socioeconomic status on human behavior
william james psychologist who believed that experience is a fluid and conscious stream of consciousness
introspection to look within
reinforcement stimulus that increases the frequency of the response
sigmund freud most famous of the early psychologists, a veinnese physician
Kenneth Clark reseacher who researched African American children
Aristotle ancient Greek philosopher that wrote Peri Psyches
john b watson founder of the school of psych that looks at studying behavior
principles of psychology first modern text book
Gestalt school of psychology that emphasizes tendency to organize perceptions into a meaningful whole
Goals of psychology observe, describe, explain, predict, control
consumer psychology the study of behavior of shoppers to explain and predict their behavior
4 factors of consumer psychology gestalt principle, iceberg principle, dynamic principle, image/symbolism
theory a statement that attempts to explain why things are the way they are and happen the way they do
structuralism school of psychology that is concerned with discovering the basic elements of concsious experience
B.F. Skinner psychologist who introduced the concept of reinforcement
learning perspective emphasizes the effects of experience on behavior
Socrates Ancient Greek who believed that people could learn much about themselves through introspection
psychoanalysis school of psychology that maintains that human behavior is determined by unconscious motives
psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
functionalism school of psyhology that focuses on how mental processes help organisms adapt to their environment
biological perspective emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
behavior any action that people can observe or measure
Wilhelm Wundt individual who established first psychology laboratory in Leipzig Germany
experimental psychologists conduct research into basic processes, such as functions of the nervous system or sensation and perception
clinical psychologists focus on helping people with psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression
psychoanalytic perspective stresses the influence of unconscious forces on human behavior
humanistic perspective stresses the importance of human concsciousness, self awareness, and the capacity to make choices
counseling psychologist deal with people who have adjustment problems
educational psychologist involved in preparing standardized tests
cognitive activities private mental activitesex: dreams, perceptions, thoughts, and memories
developmental psychologists study the changes that occur throughtout the life span
social psychologists concerned with peeople's behavior in social situations
personality psychologists identify characeristics or traitsex: shyness and friendliness
Peri Psyches a book about the mind. one of the first books about psychology
psych problems in the middle ages demonic possession/devil possession
impact of modern science on psychology -desire of scientific explanations increase- scientific approach led to birth of modern psych- laboratories established
hippocrates exception: believed psych disorders caused by brain abnormalties
7 social sciences sociology, history, economics, psychology, anthropology, geography, political science
confidentiality invloves keeping a person's identity private
double blind study study in which participants and person administering treatment don't know if treatment is recieved or not
experimental group group in an experiment that recieves treatment
ethics standards for acceptable, proper, responsible behavior
idependent variable variable in an experiment that is directly manipulated
single blind study study in which the participants don't know if they recieve treatment or not
dependent variable variable that changes as another variable in changed
control group in an experiment, the group that remains untreated
Hawthorne Effect people work harder when they know they are being watched
idependent variable in Hawthorne Experiment work week, rest period, work day
dependent variable in Hawthorne experiment productivity
informed consent person agrees to experiment after being given an overview of what is going to happen
explain 2 different types of "mother monkey figures" used in Harlows experiments - wire mother with a baby bottle-cloth mother with no baby bottle
what did the monkey's choice of mother figures reveal about attachment in Harlow's experiment? the monkeys spent most of their time clinging to their cloth mother, even though it did not feed them. Harlow concluded that the monkeys had a basic need for contact comfort- this need seems to be even stronger than the need for food
experimental science assumptions must be backed by scientific evidence obtained through experimentation/research
research methods surveys, case studies, longitudinal sudy, double and single blind studies
5 steps to psychological research 1. form research question 2. form a hypothesis 3. test hypothesis 4. analyze results 5. draw conclusions
types of surveys written in person, written by mailing, oral in person, oral by phone, internet, email
advantages of surveys - you can obtain a lot of data quickly and inexpensively- results are easy to tabulate if computes
disadvantages of suveys dishonesty, people only disblose what they are willing to share
random sample people selected by chance
stratified sample people selected to represent sub groups
sample representative part of the target population studied to get an idea of results of survey
hypothesis a precise pediction about the outcome of an experiment
generalizing results applying research findings to entire populationfactors to consider: geographic location, gender, socioeconoic background education levels
bias predispotion to a certain point of view
volunteer bias people that choose/volunteer are different than those that don't
volunteer bias factors - more willing to share personal info- more interested in the topic or research in general- may have more spare time
methods of observation survery mothod, testing, case-study, longitudinal, cross sectional, naturalistic-observation, laboratory-observation methods
testing method intelligence tests, aptitude tests, personality tests
case study method indepth investigation into individual or small groupadv: provides insights into special casesdisadv: focus on events that can't be repeated, people interviewed might distort experiences, researchers might influence others to answer in a certain way
longitudinal observe select group over a long period of timeadv: show accurately how individuals change over timedisadv: time consuming, expensive, participents may drop out
cross sectional studying involving different ages at a given timeadv: a lot lest time consuming, less expensivedisadv: more variables, data not as reliable
naturalistic observation researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural environmentadv: natural settingdisadv: don't alwasy have control over what's going on
laboratory observation done in a controlled environmentadv: great control over variablesdisadv: people act different when they know they're watched
correlation measures how closely one things is related to another
positive correlation 1 variable increases, 2nd increases
negative correlation 1 variable increases, 2nd decreases
controlled experiment when an experiment uses control goups as well as experimental groups
placebo a substance or treatment that has no affect apart from a person's belief in it
consciousness awareness of things inside and outside ourselves
construct concept used to talk abotu something we can't see, touch or measure directly
sensation stimulation of sensory receptors and transmission of sensory information to the central nervous system
perception psychological process by which we interpret sensory info
absolute threshold weakest amount of stimulus that can be sensedex: dogs hearing more sensitive than humans
difference threshold minimum change detected between two stimuli
signal detection theory distinguishing sensory stimuli takes into account strength of stimuli, setting, physical state, mood, attitudes
sensory adaption process by which we become more sensitve to weak stimuli and less sensitive to unchanging stimuli
defense mechanisms psychological distortions used to remain psychologically stable or in balance
repression remove anxiety-causing ideas from conscious awareness by pushing them into unconscious
rationalization self deception to justify unacceptable behaviors or ideas
displacement transfer idea from threatening or unsuitable object to less threatening object
regression stress causes person to behavae at an earlier stage of development
projection deal with unacceptable impulses or feelins by projecting them onto other people
sublimation channel impulses into socailly acceptable behavior
freud and consciousness biological drives- aggression, sex, need for superiorityrules- internalized laws, social norms, moral codesconflict- rules conflict with bioloical urges
manifest actual dream content at face value
latent content hidden meaning
Id the part of the unconscious that motivates behavior- instincts and repressed memories- and that demands immediate satisfaction
ego the part of the personalit that is in touch with reality and that balances the unconsious demands of id and superego
superego the unconcsious aspect of personality that inhibits the demands of id; similar to conscience
circadian rythms daily cycles of peaks and valleys that our body goes through
insomnia inability to sleep, most common is difficulty falling asleep, comes and goes more intense when thee are high anxiety levels
nightmares common ones involve snakes or murders, some specific to an activity or profession, REM sleep, average 2/month
night terrors more severe than nightmares, heart races, gasp for air, suddenly sit up and talk incoherently, don't fully wake up, vage memories
sleep walking walking in sleep.
sleep apnea breathing interruption that occurs during sleep
narcolepsy rare sleep problem in which people suddenly fall asleep no matter what time it is or where they are
REM rebound people that are deprived of REM sleep they need to catch up on it by getting extra REM sleep later on
REM rapid eye movement
beta waves when we are awake and alert, short quick
alpha waves begin to relax and become drowsy, little slower than beta waves
theta waves slower than alpha; stage 1 of sleep
stage 1 lightest sleep, brainwaves slow down from alpha rythm to the slower pattern of theta waves
stage 2 normal sleep stage
stage 3 deep sleep, delta waves
stage 4 deepest sleep. most difficulty waking up
freudian views on dreams dreams reflecr what a person's unconcious wishes and urges are. some may be unacceptable or painful
biopsychological view neurons fire in a part of the brain that controls movemet and vision. they random neuron burts make the brain try to make sense of them causing the brain to weave a dream
preconcious level ideas not in awareness at present but can be recalled if needed by directing inner awareness or attention to them
Created by: 10wynvesam
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