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Human Growth & Devel

Newman & Newman, Chapters 1-4

QuestionAnswer
Biological system includes all the processes necessary for the physical functioning of the organism
Psychosocial system includes those mental processes central to a person's ability to make meaning of experiences and take action.
Societal system includes those processes through which a person becomes integrated into a society
Positivism approaches the study of human behavior by seeking casual relationships amoung factors with the goal of trying to predict outcomes. "truth" may be captured thru research
Qualitative inquiry approaches the study of human behavior by trying to understand the meanings, motives and beliefs that underlie a person's experience. There are many versions of the "truth" depending on the informant & the context
Scientific process 1. observation 2. construction of a theory 3. operationalize the theory (measureable concepts) 4. Test 5. Evaluate the results 6. Accept, revise, reject, or develop a new theory
Characteristics of Scientific observation Objective, repeatable, systematic, statistically significant
Random sampling each person in a population has an equal chance of being included
Stratified sampling participants are deliberately selected from a variety of levels (strata) within the popualtion
Matched Groups participants in one group receive treatment while the second matched group does not.
Volunteer sampling participants are included from the group which volunteers
Qualitative sampling # of informants not decided in advance. Informants should have the knowledge and experience and be able to verbalize and reflect about the experiences. They are willing participants in the study.
Types of Research Methods 1. observation 2. case study 3. interview 4. surveys 5. tests 6. experimentation
Participant observation reseacher actively engages in interactions with other members of a setting
triangulation a confirmatory approach achieved by looking at written documents about the setting, interviewing other informants, and sharing observations with other members of the research team.
correlation statistical analysis of the strength and direction of the relationships among variables
interobserver reliability two or more observers codings of the same situation. meant to increase reliabilty
self-presentaion bias limitation of the interview method. Participant may present themselves the way they wish the interviewer to see them
Experiment: independent variable v. dependent variable independent variable: factor which is manipulated. dependent variable: demension of responces or rxn's that are measured
Experimental v. Control groups experimental -- experiences manipulation or treatment. Control group: no treatment or manipulation
quasi-experimental study treatment was not controlled by the experimenter, but was the result of some pattern of life events
Retrospective study participants report on experiences at an earlier time in their lives
Cross-sectional studies compares people of different ages, social backgrounds, or community settings.
Longitudinal study involves repeated observations of the same participants at different times
Cohort sequential study combination of a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.
Theory a logical system of concepts that helps explain observations and contributes to the development of a body of knowledge
Range of applicability evaluation of a theory in terms of relevance to the behavior it was intended to explain
Psychosocial Theory 1. Addreses growth across the lifespan 2. Individuals have the capacity to contribute to their own psychological development at each stage of life 3. Takes into consideration the active contribution of culture to individual growth ** Erik Erikson
6 Basic Concepts of Psychosocial Theory 1. Stages of Development 2. Developmental Tasks 3. Psychosocial Crises 4. Central Process for resolving the crises at each stage 5. significant relationships 6. coping -- the new behavior people generate to meet new challenges
Erikson's 8 Stages of Development 1. Oral-sensory 2. Muscular-anal 3. Locomotor-genital 4. Latency 5. puberty & adolescence 6. Young adulthood 7. Adulthood 8. maturity
Epigenetic principle Erikson. Biological plan for growth that allows each function to emerge systematically until the fully functional organism has developed. Erikson believed that it is possible to review and reinterpret earlier stages. **
11 Stages of the lifespan prenatal, infancy, toddlerhood, early school age, middle childhood, early adolescence, later adolescence, later adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, later adulthood, very old age
Age-graded expectations Havighurst. people attempt to learn the age-appropriate tasks as deemed by the society/culture to which they are adapting
Sensitive periods, teachable moments Havighurst. times when the person is most ready to acquire a new ability
Psychosocial crisis stresses and strains which result in both a positive and negitaive pole to contributive to the person's range of adaptive capabilities
Prime adaptive ego qualities basic adaptive capabilities which are formed to face & cope with psychosocial crisises
Core pathologies maladaptive orientaion resulting from unsuccessful mastering of a psychosocial crisis
Natural Selection Darwin. over generations species gradually change to respond to changing environment conditions
Ethology the study of the functional significance of expressive behavior in its social context from an evolutionary perspective
Pschosocial evolution Huxley. Suggests a process through which contemporary patterns of knowledge gathering and transmission may alter behavior and transform of override genetically guided patterns
Psychosexual Theory Freud. Bological based, instinctual drives (esp. sex & aggression) for personality development
Psychosexual theory's domains of consciousness conscious, preconscious, unconscious
Psychosexual Theory's 3 basic structures of personality Id - sexual/aggressive impulses Ego - reality oriented functions Super Ego - moral/ethical principles
Defense mechanisms mental "tricks" that recast or distort the feelings so that they are more acceptable
relational paradigm humans have basic needs for connection, contact, and meaningful interpersonal relationships throughout life
Cognitive Developmental Theory Piaget (individual based) Vygotsky (social context based). How "knowing" emerges and is transformed into logical, systematic capacities for reasoning and problem-solving.
Equilibrium (according to Piaget) achieved thru adaption, assimilation, and accommodation
Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development 1. sensorimotor intelligence 2. preoperational thought 3. concrete operational thought 4. formal operational thought
3 Central Concepts in Vygotsky'sTheory 1. Culture as a mediator of cognitive structuring 2. Movement from the intermental to the intramental 3. the zone of proximal development
Proximal Development distance between the actual developmental level and the level of potential development
Types of Learning Theories Classical conditioning (Pavlov) Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Social Learning (Bandura & Walters) Cognitive Behaviorism (Tolman/Mischel)
4 Basic Elements in Classical Conditioning Neural Stimulus, Unconditional Stimulus, Unconditional Response, Conditioned Responce
Social Learning New Responces can be acquired through observation and imitation of models
Classical Conditioning when 2 elements occur very close together in time, they acquire similiar meanings and produce similiar responces
Operant Conditioning Responces that are under voluntary control can be strengthened or eliminated depending on the consequences associated with them
Cognitive Behaviorism In addition to new responces, the learner acquires a mental rep. of the situation, including expectations about rewards + punish., appropriate responces, & the phys. + social settings in which they occur
Cultural Theory Benedict. Mead. Includes Physical culture, social culture to develop a worldview.
Enculturation culture carriers teach, model, reward, punish and use other symbolic strategies to transmit critical practices and values
Continuity when a child is given information and responsibilities that apply directly to his or her adult behavior
Discontinuity when a child is barred from activities that are open only to adults, or is forced to unlearn information or behaviors that are accepted in children, but unacceptable in adults
Collectivism worldview in which socail behavior is guided largely by collective goals shared by a family, tribe, workgroup, etc.
Individualism Worldview in which social behavior is guided by personal goal, ambitions, pleasures which may or may not coincide with the interests of the group
Social Role Theory Socialization and personality development through the person's participation in increasingly diverse and complex social roles. ex. Shakespeare's As You Like It
Systems Theory "the whole is more than the sum of it's parts". The processes and relationships of those parts make for a larger, coherent entity.
Open System structures that maintain their organization even though their parts constantly change (ex. schools, individuals, families) Use feedback mechanisms for adaptive self-regulation
Microsystem acvtivities, roles, and interpersonal relations experienced by the developing person
Mesosystem interrelations between two or more settings in which the developing person actively participates
Exosystem The setting -- does not actively involve the developing person, but affects the development
Macrosystem larger beliefs/culture as a whole that the lower order exists within
Chronosystem individuals and the systems in which they are embedded change over time
Created by: rosa2little