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Psych Vocab Ch. 10

Thinking and Language

QuestionAnswer
cognition the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category
algorithm a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier - but also more error prone - use of heuristics
heuristic a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more prone the algorithms
insight a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
confirmation bias a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
mental set a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
functional fixedness the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
availability heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
overconfidence the tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
framing the way an issue is posed; how an issue is frames can significantly affect decisions and judgments
belief bias the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seems valid, or vaild conclusions seem invalid
belief perseverance clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they where formed has been discredited
artificial intelligence (AI) the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language
computer neural networks computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we cobine them to communicate meaning
phoneme in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound
morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
grammar in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning
babbling stage beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word stage the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two word statements
telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram - "go car" - using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary" words
linguistic determinism Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
Created by: bailee1435