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The Research Questio


A Research Question is a statement that identifies the phenomenon to be studied.
To develop a strong research question from your ideas, you should ask yourself these things: Do I know the field and its literature well? What are the important research questions in my fieldWhat areas need further explorationCould my study fill a gap? Lead to greater understanding?Has RS already been conducted in this topic area?
Sometimes the best research questions develop: When we work across disciplinesWhen they originate from our own experience
Further Questions of RS Questions Has this study been done before? is there room for improvIs the timing right for this ? to be answered? Is it a hot topic,is it becoming obsolete?Would funding sources be interested? If you are proposing a service prog, is the target com interested?
A strong research idea should pass the “so what” test Think about the potential impact of the RS you are proposing. What is the benefit of answering your research question? Who will it help and how? If you cannot make a definitive statement about the purpose of your research, it is unlikely to be funded
Simple Questions are Always the BestA research focus should be narrow, not broad-based.
Formulating the Research Question SummaryThe research question should be: SimpleImportantAnswerableOriginal
Hypothesis A well-thought-out and focused research question leads directly into your hypotheses. What predictions would you make about the phenomenon you are examining?This will be the foundation of your application.
Hypotheses are more . . . specific predictions about the nature and direction of the relationship between two variables.
Characteristics of good hypotheses Give insight into a RSQAre testable and measurable by the proposed experimentsSpring logically from the experience of the investigatorno more than 3 primary hypotheses should be proposed for a research study.
More Characteristics of good hypotheses A proposal that is hypoth-driven is more likely to be funded than a “fishing expedition” or a primarily descriptive study.Provide a rationale for your hypoth—where did they come from, and why are they strong?
Providing alternative possibilities for the hypotheses that could be tested why did you choose the ones you did over others?
Specific aims are the steps you are going to take to test your hypotheses and what you want to accomplish in the course of the study period.
Using specific aims Your objectives should be measurable and highly focusedEach hypothesis is matched with a specific aim. The aims are feasible, given the time and money you might be requesting for a grant.
The specific aims section should serve as a succinct description of what you plan to accomplish during the study period.Begin this section with a brief description of the overall importance of your research projectList each aim followed by the hypothesis
Prior to determining the problem and formulating the research question, you must first decide what topic area is of interest to you.
Once you have decided on you topic of interest, you then must review some of the published literature to more specifically focus you area of interest
Reviewing the current literature allows you to focus your area of interest, determine what the problem is and then formulate an appropriate research question.
DETERMINING WHAT THE PROBLEM ISThe Problem Statement, step 1 1. A broad statement that begins to focus the direction of the study.
DETERMINING WHAT THE PROBLEM ISThe Problem Statement, Step 2 2. Needed to clarify the scope of the study and to delineate what will be tested.
DETERMINING WHAT THE PROBLEM ISThe Problem Statement, Step 3 3. The problem is then refined to a research question, which is specific and defined.
DETERMINING WHAT THE PROBLEM ISThe Problem Statement Step 4 4. It should be clear and concise to enable one to focus the development of the research design.
steps of the research design It delimits the purpose of the study.How important is it?How feasible is it?Is the population to be studied available?e. What is the research rationale to support the question?f. Includes a description of the specific variables to be studied
Literature is useful in identifying the specific problem.Step #1: -Identify a Specific Problem-Decide or define the Research Question-Starts out BROAD and GENERAL then thru literature review-Becomes more PRECISE
THE RESEARCH QUESTION: 1. 1. Specifies which factors and behaviors will be examined
THE RESEARCH QUESTION: step 2 2. What types of data will be collected (VARIABLES)These must be defined (OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS) within the context of the study
THE RESEARCH QUESTION:Step 3 3. Once identified they are combined in a PURPOSE STATEMENT or HYPOTHESIS, suggesting how the VARIABLES are expected to be RELATED.-The HYPOTHESIS guides the investigation and subsequent DATA ANALYSIS.
THE RESEARCH QUESTION: Step 4 4. The question should be important, answerable, and feasible.
THE RESEARCH QUESTION: Step 5 5. The question can come from clinical experience, professional literature, previous studies, clinical theory.
REFINING THE QUESTION 1.General problem identified.2.Importance and feasibility evaluated.3.Narrowed and refined to researchable dimension
RESEARCH RATIONALE The background for the research question clarifies the research rationale that will support the research question, guide decisions in designing the study, and provide the basis for interpreting the results.
VARIABLES are the building blocks of the RESEARCH QUESTIONIndependent Variable is the predictor variable.Dependent Variable is the outcome variable.
This Variable is the predictor Independent Variable
This Variable is the outcome variable. Dependent Variable
Predictive Study •Is the presence and quantity of the IV predictive of the DV?•Examples: Regression models
Comparative Study (causal relationships) •IV is controlled and the DV is measured.•A change in the DV is presumed to be caused by the “value” of the IV.•The DV is a function of the IV.-IV has at least 2 LEVELS: these levels represent groups or conditions that will be compared.
IV = TYPE OF EXERCISE Level 1 = No ExerciseLevel 2 = Aerobic Exercise
IV1 = TYPE OF EXERCISE (Active Varible - manipulate) Level 1 = NoneLevel 2 = Aerobic
IV2 = SEX (Attribute variable - cannot change it) Level 1 = MaleLevel 2 = Female
DV = the response or effect variable does not have levelscan have multiple DVs
Created by: NicoleB