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Career Dev Theories

From FCD: Student Manual

Who proposed the Hierarchy of Needs? Abraham Maslow
How is safety related to career development? If you had experienced a shift in your job security, it could leave a deficit in the safety layer
At what level does Career Development work begin? Love and belongingness
How is love and belongingness related to career development? Becoming a part of the work environment satisfies this need
How is esteem related to career development? At this level, you are achieving status at work, have a reputation in your field, you are respected
When considering career development, what does self-actualization look like? High level of career maturity
What goes into a high level of career maturity? keen sense of reality; sees problems as challenges; feels comfortable relying on their own skill; democratic, fair, & nondiscriminating; accepting of others; comfortable with self; creative; seeks PEAK experiences that leave a lasting impression
Vocational Choice Theory Trait-and-factor theory applied to career development, career interests are an expression of the individual's personality.
John Holland Vocational Choice Theory
First of four basic concepts in Holland's theory - people can be described: as a combination of three or more of the six types
Second of four basic concepts in the Vocational Choice Theory - environments can be described: as a combination of the same six types
Third of four basic concepts in Holland's theory - people of a given type: seek environments of the same given type
Fourth of four basic concepts in the Vocational Choice Theory - if they can find a compatible environment: they are likely to be satisfied and productive
Realistic The DOER, a problem-solver, concrete activities preferred, see themselves as practical
Investigative The THINKER, analytic, not skilled negotiators, into being acknowledged for their achievements, see themselves as intellectual
Artistic The CREATOR, expressive and independent, prefer to avoid highly ordered or repetitive activities, work best when allowed to be expressive and their input is valued
Social The HELPER, very dominant in the environment, value providing services for others, enjoy working with others, prefer trustworthy, helpful, and appreciative workplaces
Enterprising The PERSUADER, have a skill for getting a group of people to lean a certain way, likely in sales or leadership, prefer working in groups
Conventional The ORGANIZER, likely enjoys working with numbers, records, or machines, enjoy repetitive tasks, value success in business
Good-fit? Individuals and their occupations, can be measured
RIASEC Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional
RIASEC code Holland Code: 2-3 letter combinations that indicate an individuals scores
Hexagon The shape of the RIASEC model, informs of the relationships between codes
Consistent Next to each other, indicative of more internal stability
Inconsistent Across from each other, indicative of less internal stability
Differentiated When there is a clear distinction between their likes and dislikes: some high, some low ("peaks and valleys")
Undifferentiated Profile is "flat", does not show a clear distinction between likes and dislikes
Congruence Personality fits the occupational environment
Explore occupations related to code by information, interviews, job shadowing, taking courses, and volunteering
John Krumboltz Learning Theory
What is your primary role in Krumboltz' Learning Theory? To help them LEARN how to create more satisfying lives
First of four basic beliefs in Learning Theory You can only shape environments that are conducive to learning
Second of four basic beliefs in Learning Theory There are two types of learning: Instrumental and Associative
Instrumental Learning Reinforcement is helpful when seeking to change behavior
Bx + R = ^Bx When reinforcement follows behavior, that behavior is likely to increase
Associative Learning Vicarious learning, learning by observation, modeling observed behaviors
Third of four basic beliefs in Learning Theory Use reinforcement only to change behavior, punishment should be avoided
Positive Reinforcement Adding a pleasant stimulus to a situation after a behavior occurs you would like to increase
Negative Reinforcement Removing an unpleasant stimulus from a situation after a behavior occurs that you would like to increase
Example of Negative Reinforcement? Nagging is most unpleasant, if you submit your resume, I will stop nagging. Reinforcement (removal of unpleasant stimulus) causes an increase in desired behavior!
Fourth of four basic beliefs in Learning Theory Apply learning theory techniques to life and career actions
For most people, career choice is the result of: a series of unplanned events!
First of four basic steps to generate unplanned career opportunities - help them figure out the: next action steps to a more satisfying life
Second of four basic steps to generate unplanned career opportunities - let them know you understand by: Using helping skills
Third of four basic steps to generate unplanned career opportunities - the goal is to find the: ONE THING that they will agree to do before your next meeting by brainstorming
Fourth of four basic steps to generate unplanned career opportunities is to evaluate: success = Applied to life? Teach them what they need to know!
Four key attitudes to help open their minds to HAPPENSTANCE: Curiosity, Flexibility, Persistence, and Optimism
Developmental Theory Focuses on how the career unfolds over the lifespan; stages - tasks - outcomes
Donald Super Career Developmental Theory
Outcomes of Developmental Stages Could be positive, which would indicate development is proceeding at a normal pace, or negative, which would indicate this would be adding difficulty to the developmental trajectory.
Vocational Maturity Completing tasks on time as indicated in the Career Developmental Theory (Super)
Vocational Immaturity Not completing tasks as indicated in the Career Development Theory (Super)
Three aspects to Super's Career Developmental Theory Self-concept, life span, and life space.
Self-concept Who we are & what we like, how we see us, how we want to be seen, and how we think others view us; feedback matters a LOT
Life Span Length of one's career
Life space Breadth of one's career
Series of Developmental Tasks Stages of Career Development (GEEMD)
Growth Ages 0-15, physical growth, formation of self-concept, beginning to explore interests and capabilities
Exploration Ages 15-25, explore work options and how to get there, making a decision, getting the training, and beginning to engage
Establishment Ages 25-45, Settling into the occupation, contributing to the field, promotions to higher levels of responsibility
Maintenance Ages 45-65, Pivoting from work to leisure
Life stages to career development were: thought to be linear at first, but they realized that people move through the stages more than once in life
Stages of Career Development (GEEMD) Growth - Exploration - Establishment - Maintenance - Disengagement
First of five developmental tasks to be completed during the life stages to career development (CSISC) Crystallization
Second of five developmental tasks to be completed during the life stages to career development (CSISC) Specification
Third of five developmental tasks to be completed during the life stages to career development (CSISC) Implementation
Fourth of five developmental tasks to be completed during the life stages to career development (CSISC) Stabilization
Fifth of five developmental tasks to be completed during the life stages to career development (CSISC) Consolidation
Crystallization Clear formation of vocational identity
Specification making the commitment the ONE occupation
Implementation completing the training and getting the job
Stabilization settling in and making contributions
Consolidation seniority & productivity that comes from experience
Combination or blend of all life roles Life Space
Number of life roles proposed by Donald Super 8
What is a theater, in Super's theory? Where it is happening: home, work, school
How does Super display the eight life roles? Life-Career Rainbow
What does a brighter color on the rainbow in a particular life role indicate? Intensity, the more intense a life role, the brighter the color
How does the model demonstrate how each life role varies over time? The width, intensity, and existence of each ribbon on the rainbow changes to display these variances
How do they measure satisfaction & stress in Super's model? The number and combination of roles a person has
Eight life roles (S/D-S-W-S-H-P-L-C) in Super's Theory? Son/daughter, Student, Worker, Spouse, Homemaker, Parent, Leisurite, Citizen
Leisurite Time a person spends in leisure activities, theater = home or community
Citizen Time spent in an unpaid volunteer role - giving to the community, theater = community
Parent Theater = home, school, community
Spouse/partner Theater = home, school, community
Worker Theater = work (wherever that happens)
Student Theater = school
Son/Daughter Theater = Home (in the formative years)
Work Importance Study An international study in 1995 that sought to identify a list of values that people get or attempt to get from work and to determine if these values differed from culture to culture
Number of values identified 14
Ability Utilization Able to use one's skills and knowledge
Achievement :-) Good results
Aesthetics Finding or creating beauty
Altruism Helping others
Autonomy Independence
Creativity Discover and design new things and ideas
Economic Rewards Money $$$$ and the ability to have a high standard of living
Lifestyle Getting to plan one's own activities and live life as one pleases
Physical Activity Movement matters!
Prestige Acknowledgement for accomplishments <3
Risk Dangerous and exciting challenges (we like adrenaline!)
Social Interaction Being with others and working in groups
Variety Being able to change activities
Surroundings We like them to be pleasing, please.
A model in Super's theory to attempts to summarize his life's work Archway of Career Determinants
At the center of all decisions the SELF
At the base of the archway Biography and geography
Flanked on either side of the SELF Role Self-concept
Left column of the Archway of Career Determinants - shows what? Individual characteristics that impact career decisions
Individual characteristics that impact career decisions Achievement, Personality, Interests, Aptitudes, Values, Needs, Intelligence
Right column of the Archway of Career Determinants- shows what? How society impacts career decisions
How society impacts career decisions Employment Practices, Social Policy, Peer Groups, Labor Market, School, Family, Society, Community, Economy
According to Super, our career is made up of the activities in our various life roles that we choose to play
Self-concept expressed through a combination of these roles
How to increase life satisfaction? Increase the number of life roles you are playing intensely
How to fill the life space? With new and expanded life-roles
Career-in-culture Interview Snapshot of family & cultural influences and view of world & self
Career Rainbow Helps young people PLAN and helps adults BALANCE their lives
Assessing values and then? helping them explore how to express them in their different life-roles
Assisting people with understanding their? vocational self-concept and then applying that to the selection of an occupation
Which postmodern theory is built on many of the same assumptions as Super's theory? Constructivist Narrative Approach
What is another name for the Constructivist Narrative Approach? the Storied Approach
Why do the supporters of this theory feel so strongly about this approach? People are more than a sum of their scores
What goes into the process of choosing and entering an occupation? One clarifies and implements a work self-concept
Can people be separated from their environments? No, that is why the Constructivist Narrative Approach insists that you must UNDERSTAND and CONSIDER the context that individuals relate to, interact with, and find meaning
In the Constructivist Narrative Approach, what about the context must you UNDERSTAND and CONSIDER? How individuals relate to, interact with, and find meaning
What are the three components to consider in a narrative? Past experiences, current meanings, and future actions
What self-knowledge is revealed by the "STORY"? Interests, achievements, abilities, values, motivations, etc.
What are the two assumptions in the Storied Approach? Change is constant and is often marked with conflict & resolution AND one comes to know SELF by constructing their story
What is the GOAL in helping people to know their SELF in the Storied Approach? To engage them in self-awareness and self-assessment to uncover values that might impact their future decisions
Who was one of the first theorists to focus on Transitions? Nancy Schlossberg
What is Nancy Shlossberg's theory called? Transition Theory - the 4S Model
What are the 4 Ss in Schlossberg's theory? Situation-Self-Supports-Strategies
According to Nancy Schlossberg, what do people need to do in order to move forward in a positive way? Recognize and integrate transitions
In this assumption of her model, what does Schlossberg say that life is characterized by? Change - it is a series of transitions
In this assumption of Schlossberg's model, what can cause a change in a person's roles, relationships, and routines? Transitions - includes events and non-events (things that were supposed to happen, but did not)
In this assumption of Schlossberg's model, what do transitions have? Varying degrees of impact
According to Schlossberg, what determines success? A person's ability to cope with change and transition
Many times, what is it that prompts the Transition process? Job loss
How is the transition theory different from Developmental theories? It focuses on the point in time when change is occurring, rather than the whole life span.
What are the questions you might ask to determine the SITUATION in the 4S Model? How severe? Change of roles needed? Timing - good/bad? Control options? Permanent? Timeline? What else is going on?
What information do you need to know about the SELF in the 4S Model? What is their general outlook (cup 1/2 full/empty)? What is their Locus of Control (internal/external)? Skills? Stress Management? Assertiveness? Decisions? Are they resilient?
What information do we need to understand what SUPPORTS are available in the 4S Model? WHO/WHAT is in their lives? Family/friends? $$? Resources? Agencies & Providers?
What is involved with STRATEGIES in the 4S Model? It is PLAN TIME! Shift your focus. Seek inward and develop what you can! What are their options? What are the STEPS? Time-frame?
Why would anyone want to "Go down. Go down hard, at least once in their lives?" How else will you flex those transition muscles?
What does ILP stand for? Integrative Life Planning Theory
Who proposed the Integrative Life Planning Theory? Sunny Hansen
Whose approach is Hansen's ILP Theory similar to? Donald Super's Career Developmental Theory
Similar to Super, Hansen's ILP approach focuses on a way of seeing the self and the world that focuses on what? Personal development and considering the context where we live and work.
In addition to local, national, and global changes, what else does Hansen's theory focus on? Work, family, education, & leisure changes AND Cultural changes and the changing roles for males and females
Hansen, like Super, was concerned about the relative importance of various life-roles, what were the four Hansen focused on? Learning, Living, Working, and Relaxing
Hansen recognizes the need for reflection of what? Mind, body, and spirit
Super and Hansen both agreed on the importance of ______________, both personal and social. change
What is the metaphor Hansen uses for her theory? Quilting
What phrase is at the center of the quilt? Weaving our lives into a Meaningful Whole
What surrounds the quote in the center of the "quilt"? Life patches - this is up to each of us how to arrange them in our quilt
If you are making career choices or helping others, what do you need to be mindful of? The 6 critical tasks in ILP
The first of the 6 critical tasks in ILP is about finding work that: needs DOING and that provides economic self-sufficiency in changing global contexts
The second of the 6 critical tasks seeks to connect: FAMILY and WORK
The third of the 6 critical tasks involves valuing: PLURALISM and DIVERSITY
The fourth of the 6 critical tasks in ILP is about managing: personal TRANSITIONS and organizational CHANGE
The fifth of the 6 critical tasks of ILP involves exploring: SPIRITUALITY, MEANING, and life PURPOSE
The sixth of the 6 critical tasks of ILP involves attending to our: HEALTH
Which theory is the CIP Theory? Cognitive Information Processing
Who was researching like it was 1999 to create the CIP Theory? Sampson, Lenz, Reardon, & Peterson
What are the three factors that CIP Theory looks at? Self-understanding, occupational knowledge, and how we cognitively process this information
The first of the 4 assumptions that make up the foundation of CIP states that all career decisions involve: cognitive and affective processes
In the second assumption of CIP Theory, what determines their capacity to solve career problems? Available operations and knowledge, their cognitive resources
In the third assumption of CIP Theory, what are always evolving? Knowledge structures
In the fourth assumption of CIP Theory, what is the stated GOAL? To enhance the client's information processing skills
What shape is the model for the CIP Theory? A pyramid
What is at the base of the pyramid in CIP Theory? Self-knowledge & occupational knowledge
What is at the middle level in the pyramid model of CIP Theory? Decision-making skills
What is in the top level of the CIP Theory? Metacognitions
What does Metacognitions include? Self-talk, Self-awareness, and the monitoring & controlling of one's thoughts
What is your role as a career development professional in CIP Theory? Helping the clients better understand how they think and how these thinking patterns influence their career decision-making
What is happening during the initial interview (Step 1 of CIP 7 Step Outline)? Getting to know about the CIP model, what their concerns are and what their skill level is in each level of the CIP model.
What are you assessing in the 2nd step in the 7 Step Outline in the CIP theory? Career decision-making readiness
Who do you collaborate with to identify gaps in the knowledge in Step 3 of the 7 Step Outline in CIP Theory? The client
The fourth step of the 7 Step Outline of CIP Theory asks you to identify goals that will: close gaps
The fifth of the 7 Step Outline of the CIP Theory involves developing: an individual learning plan
The 6th of 7 Step Outline of the CIP Theory has the client: execute the plan
The last step in the 7 Step Outline of the CIP Theory asks you to review: client progress.
The Social Cognitive Career Theory uses concepts from Albert Bandura, what is his theory called? Social Learning Theory
Which concept of Bandura's is featured in Social Cognitive Theory? Self-efficacy
What does Social Cognitive Career Theory attempt to do? Add a larger context, to consider the individual's many facets and how these facets interact, when thinking about Career Development and Planning
What two factors does the Social Cognitive Theory look at? Individual factors and environmental factors
Social Cognitive Career Theory is based on the critical relationship between what three elements? self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, and personal goals
What is the most important element when considering self-efficacy? Your BELIEF in your ability to do it determines if you will try and whether or not you actually can
Why might interventions be needed in Social Cognitive Career Theory? For those with low self-esteem and low self-efficacy
What might the intervention be in Social Cognitive Theory? it would focus on overcoming obstacles and giving encouragement
What is the goal of Social Cognitive Career Theory? To help them find a career that matches their interests, values, and skills
Strengths-Based Approach changes the focus from ______________ to ______________. problem-solving & deficits; strengths & successes
Strengths-Based Approach's work is: client-led.
Where does the empowerment come from in the Strengths-Based Approach? from being treated with respect and having strengths acknowledged and enhanced
How can you best use Strengths-Based Approach? help them to see the best uses of their strengths and empower them to help themselves move toward the life they want
Brown's Value-Based Career Decision Making approach emphasizes: the role that values play in career selection
According to Brown's Value-Based Career Decision Making approach, values guide: decision making
Values provide standards, how do we use these standards? To judge actions of ourselves and others, serve as the basis of setting goals, allow us to place worth on objects and situations, and help us determine how our needs are met.
According to Brown's Value-Based Career Decision Making approach, how will not knowing your values impact you? It will make decision making very challenging
What can modify values, according to Brown's Values-Based Career Decision Making approach? age, experience, and traumatic life events
What is the CTC by Jim Bright & Robert Pryor? Chaos Theory of Careers
Bright & Pryor applied Chaos Theory to careers: Reality is viewed in terms of complex dynamic systems, where there is a continued interplay between stability and change
How many cornerstone constructs are there in CTC? 4
What are the four cornerstone constructs in CTC? Complexity, Change, Chance, and Construction
There are an array of influeces in our lives, CTC theory states that other theories have underestimated the dynamic and interacting nature of which of the four cornerstone constructs? Complexity
Can you list some of the influences in the Complexity cornerstone construct in CTC? Parents - labor markets - friends - media - cultural traditions - teachers - gender - sexual orientation - politics - climate - health
Explain the Change cornerstone construct from CTC Due to COMPLEX interactions, systems are sensitive to change.
In CTC, minor changes over time result in; Slow Shift
In CTC, drastic changes prompt what? Fast Shift
In CTC, you can't stop it, so you might as well embrace it: SHIFT HAPPENS
When you have complex connected change, what does that lead to according to CTC's third cornerstone construct? Chance is an inability to predict and control - either within that system OR in other systems that the system interacts with
According to Bright & Pryor, chance is likely the norm and not the exception.
In the fourth cornerstone construct in CTC, what is happening? Without control and predictability, an individual has the opportunity to become an active participant in the creation of their futures, they are no longer held in the cause-and-effect of determinism.
In construction, the fourth cornerstone construct in CTC, what are attractors? They define the limits you see in systems, what attracts and how does this limit what the system is capable of?
When you are focusing on one career goal, CTC theory says that you are captured by a: point attractor
In CTC, when there are two points, one or the other with no other options, this is a: pendulum attractor
When you follow the same rules and do the same procedures, the system moves through these defined points and repeats, Bright & Pryor say this is a: torus attractor
According to Bright & Pryor, this is most likely our natural state: strange attractor
Strange Attractors These attractors are characteristic of chaotic systems, where there is a constant flux between stability and a near breakdown
What concept in the fourth cornerstone construct in CTC shows the trajectory or trace of the functioning of a strange attractor? Fractals
What three features of CTC are present in Fractals? They are complex, dynamically stable, and constantly changing.
How can you use Fractals in career development? You are trying to understand their fractal - their dynamic, complex, and ever-changing but self-similar patterns
Nonlinearity, a concept in the fourth cornerstone construct of Construction in CTC, is illustrated in: The Butterfly Effect
If you are 2 minutes late to a really important meeting, which leads to your termination, which concept in CTC is on display? Nonlinearity
In CTC, what is emergence? The identification of patterns from the functioning of complex dynamical systems across time and different contexts
In CTC, what is a phase shift? Occurs when a system's configuration radically alters either quickly or slowly - an unplanned event that impacts your career continuity, for example.
Created by: eduktd
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