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CT brain,thorax,abdo

Ct brain, thorax abdomen

Neurons have 3 parts. what are they? axon, cell body and dendrites
Central Nervous System is composed of? brain and spinal cord
What is a dendrite? process that conducts impulses toward the neuron cell body
What is an axon? process leading away from the cell body
Multipolar motoneruon. what are they? neurons that conduct impulses from spinal cord to muscle tissue
What does the mulitpolar dendrite look like? it has one axon and several dendrites
What two parts of the neruon make up gray matter? dendrites and cell bodies
what part of the neuron makes up the white matter? axons
Where does the solid spinal cord terminate? lower border of L1, tapered area called conus medullaris
What is the conus medullaris? the distal tapered ending of the spinal crd at the lower level of L1
what is a common lumbar puncture site for spinal tap, contrast injection, etc? between the spines of L3 and l4
What is the name of the membranes protecting the brain and spinal cord? Meninges
Name the three layers from outer to inner of the meninges? dura mater the outermost, arachnoid connecting the outer and inner , pia mater is the innermost layer
What are the three potential spaces to each of the meninges layers epidural, subdural, subarachnoid.
Where is the epidural space of the brain? between the dura mater and inner table of the skull
What is the subdural space fo the brain? between the duramater and arachnoid space
Where is the suarachnoid space? between the arachnoid and the pia mater
What are the three divisions of the brain? forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain
What three parts make up the brain stem? midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
The forebrain is comprised of ? cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalmus
The hindbrain is comprised of ? pons, medulla, and cerebellum
the midbrain is coprised of ? the midbrain
How many lobes does the cerebrum have? Name them. 5 lobes, Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, occipital, and insula (or central)
What separates the cerebrum into right and left hemisphere? longitudinal fissure
What is a gyrus? the raised convuluted area
Which two gyri can be identified on CR sectional radiographs? Anterior Central gyrus , and Posterior central gyrus
What is a sulcus? shallow groove
What sulcus separates the parietal and frontal lobes? central sulcus
What is a fissure? a deeper groove.
How many cavities in the ventricles? Name them. four. Rt and let lateral ventricles, third ventricle, and the fourth ventricle
Where is Cerebral Spinal fluid formed? lateral ventricles in specialized capillary beds called choroid plexuses
What amount of CSF is present within and around the CNS. 140ml
How much CSF is produced daily? 500ml
Name the 4 parts of the lateral ventricle BODY, ANTERIOR(FRONTAL), pOSTERIOR (OCCIPITAL), INFERIOR (TEMPORAL)
The interventricular foramen connect which ventricles? lateral and third ventricles
What two anatomic parts is connected with the cerebral aqueduct third and fourth ventricles
What is the lateral recess? a lateral extension on either side of the fourth ventricles
What is the cerebral aqueduct? passage that connects third and fourth ventricles
What is the interventricular foramina? connect the body of each lateral ventricle to the third ventricle
What is hydrocephalus? excessive accumulation of CSF within the ventricles
What is a cistern? larger areas withing the subarachnoid space
What is the cistern cerebellomedullaris? located inferiorly tothe fourth ventricle and the cerebellum. it is the largest cistern
Where is a cisternal puncture normally performed? c1 and occipital bone. this is the secondary puncture site for anesthesia into the subarachnoid space
Where is the cisterna pontis located? inferior and anterior to the pons
Where is the Thalamus located? just above the midbrain and under the corpus callosum.
What is the function of the Thalamus? an interpretation center for sensory impulses for pain, temperature and touch, emotions, memory
What makes up the diencephalon? thalamus and hypothalamus
the hypothalamus forms the floor and lower walls of the third ventricle. true or false true
the thalamus forms the the walls of the third ventricles. true or false true
Name three significant structures associated with the hypothalamus. infundibulum, posterior pituitary gland, and optic chiasma
What is th infundibulum? conical process projecting downward and ending in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland
the infundibulum and the posterior pituitary make up what? neurohypophysis
The optic chiasma is located superior to the pituitary gland and anterior to the third ventricle. true or false true
The function of the hypothalamus is? to control homeostais via the endocrine system
What is the midbrain? short constricted area conecting the forebrain to the hindbrain
what makes up the hindbrain? cerebellum, pons, and medulla
what makes up the brain stem? midbrain, pons and medulla
what is the function of the pineal gland? endorcrine gland secretes hormones that aid in regulating secretory activities
what is another name for the pituitary gland? hypophysis
Where is the pituitary gland located? in and proctected by the sella turcica in the sphenoid bone and attached to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum
what unites the right and left hemishpere of the cerebellum? vermis
what are the advantages of volume scanning over single slice scanning? multiplanar reconstruction, shorter scan times, and artifacts reduced
What is multiplanar reconstruction (MPR)? volume scanning that allows reconstruction of patient data into alternative planes
What is bolume ct scanners continuous rotation of the x ray tube via slip rings
what are the advantages of the multislice ct scanner over single or volume ct scanners? shorter acquistion time, decreased amount of contrast media, improved spatial resolution, improved image quality.
What are the disadvantages fo the multislice over single and volume ct scanners? cost.
What are the three major components of the CT system? gantry, computer and operator console
The gantry is made up of ? x ray tube, detector array and collimnators
the central opening in the gantry is called? aperture
what factors are included in each protocol? kvp, ma, pitch, field of view , slice thickness, table indexing, reconstruction algorithms, and display windows
What is volume elements or voxels? three dimensional tissue
The depth of a voxel is determined by? slice thickness
What is the baseline for CT numbers? water = 0
What is window width ? the range of CT numbers that are displayed as shades of gray , controls displayed image contrast
What is Window level? controls image brightness or determines the CT number that will be the center of the WW. determined by the tissue density
What is pitch a ratio reflecting the relationship between table speed and slice thickness. determines amount of anatomy covered in a particular scan
what is the formula for pitch? couch movement(mm/sec) per 360 rotation of tube/collimation
what pitch indicates that the table speed and slice thickness are equal. 1:1 pitch
What is a scanogram? preliminary scan, scout ot topogram
How are axial scans viewed? as though the viewer were focing the patient and looking at the scan from the foot end of the patient
What is the relationsip of patient dose to pitch? patient dose is inversely proportional to the pitch. lower pitch = higher dose, thinner slice = higher dose
For a head CT the primary beam is alighned? parallel to a line passing from the nasion to the skull
The head CT usually performed with two window settings why? one to allow optimal visualization of the brain with lower contrast, the other for bony detail with higher contrast
What is subdural hemotoma? collection of blood under the dura mater, caused by trauma to the skull
what is hydrocephalus? blockage to drainage of CSF from ventricles causing enlargement of ventricls
what are two types of positive contrast agents used to opacify the gastrointestinal tract? barium sulfate suspensions and non ionic water-soluble solutions
Created by: rad2bone