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Geography Unit 8

Cultural Geography The wide-ranging and comprehensive field of geography that studies spatial aspects of human cultures. Cultural landscape
Culture Hearth Heartland, source area, or innovation center; place of origin of a major culture.
Cultural diffusion The process of spreading and adopting a cultural element from its place of origin across a wider area.
Cultural landscape The forms and artifacts sequentially placed on the natural landscape by the activities of various human occupants. By this progressive imprinting of the human presence, the physical (natural) landscape is modified into the cultural landscape
Hydraulic civilization theory The theory that cities which managed to control irrigated farming over large hinterlands held political power over other cities. Particularly applies to early Asian civilizations based in such river valleys as the Indus, and those of Mesopotamia.
Spatial diffusion The spatial spreading or dissemination of a culture element (such as a technological innovation) or some other phenomenon (e.g., a disease outbreak).
Relocation diffusion Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they relocate to new areas. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population.
Stateless nation A national group that aspires to become a an independent state but lacks the territorial means to do so.
Fragmented modernization A checkerboard-like spatial pattern of modernization in an emerging-market economy wherein a few localized regions of a country experience most of the development while the rest are largely unaffected.
Desalination The process of removing dissolved salts from water, thereby producing fresh (drinking) water from seawater or brackish water.
Religious revivalism Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of that faith and to influence state policy. Often called religious fundamentalism; but in the case of Islam, Muslims pr
Jihad A doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as holy war, it entails a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards prescribed by the Quran (Koran).
Domino effect The belief that political destabilization in one state can result in the collapse of order in a neighboring state, triggering a chain of events that, in turn, can affect a series of contiguous states.
Insurgent state Territorial embodiment of a successful guerrilla movement. The establishment by antigovernment insurgents of a territorial base in which they exercise full control; thus a state within a state.
Failed state A country whose institutions have collapsed and in which anarchy prevails.
Caliphate An imperial-scale Islamic government led by a caliph, considered a direct successor to the Prophet Muhammad, who rules and exerts moral authority over Muslims worldwide.
Turkish Model In the wake of the regime changes in the North Africa/Southwest Asia realm brought about by the “Arab Spring” of 2011, moderates have cited Turkey as the best model of democratic governance for this part of the world.
Islamic Front The southern border of the African Transition Zone that marks the religious frontier of the Muslim faith in its southward penetration of Subsaharan Africa
Created by: pl227451
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