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Unit 1 Vocab

7-5 Petersen: Unit 1 before word is TCI 2013-14

Unit 1 geography the study of the earth in all its variety
Unit 1 landforms individual features of the land
enviroment natural surroundings
Unit 1global positioning system (GPS) a group of satellites traveling around the earth that recieve signals that determine the exact latitude and longitude of a certain thing or area
Unit 1 geographic information system (GIS) special computer software that helps geographers gathe many different kinds of information about the same place that can be combined and put on maps
artifact any object made by man, such as tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, etc.
fossils remains of animal or plant life from the past
solar system earth, eight other planets and thousands of smaller bodies that all revolve around the sun
Unit 1 orbit PATH/HIGHWAY that a body/planet,metor,etc. in the solar system travels around the sun
atmosphere the layer of air surrounding the Earth
axis the imaginary line that runs through the Earth's center between the North and South poles
Unit 1 revolution one complete orbit around the sun
leap year a year that has an extra day; it occurs every 4th year
summer solstice on or about June 21st, the day with the most hours of sunlight and the fewest hours of darkness in the Northern Hemishpere
winter solstice on or about December 22nd, the day with the fewest hours of sunlight in the Northern Hemisphere
equinox when the day and night are of equal length in both hemispheres
core the center of the earth
mantle a layer of rock and magma that surrounds the core - (chocolate in a peanut M & M)
magma melted rock
crust the outer layer of the earth; on which we stand-shell of the M&M)
continent massive land area located on the crust
plate tectonics theory the crust is like the broken egg shell of a hard boiled egg-each broken section is call a plate or huge slabs of rock -the plates sit on top of the mantle and can 'wiggle around'
earthquake a violent and sudden movement of the earth's crust
tsunamis a huge under water wave created by undersea earthquakes
faults cracks in the earth's crust
weathering the process of BREAKING surface rock into boulders, gravel, sand and soil due to water and frost, chemicals and even plants
erosion the process of wind and water CARRYING AWAY the weathered material on the earth's surface
Unit 1 glaciers giant, slow moving sheets of ice--bottom of it melts because of the weight of it--then it slides to a lower elevation
Unit 1 elevation height above sea level
Unit 1 plains large stretches of land that is flat or rolling(small hills) at a LOW elevation
Unit 1 plateaus flat land, but it is at a HIGHer elevation than the surrounding land
Unit 1 isthmus a narrow piece of LAND that CONNECTS two larger pieces of LAND--'land connects land'-like in Panama
Unit 1 peninsula a piece of land with water on THREE sides- Florida
Unit 1 island a body of land completely surrounded by water-like Hawaii
continental shelf land underwater all along the coast/edge of the continents and extends out in the ocean for several miles -
trenches valleys on the floor of the ocean
Unit 1 strait a narrow body of water between two pieces of land--'water connects water'--like between Spain and Africa
Unit 1 channel the same as a strait but wider
Unit 1 delta soil/silt washes down rivers and deposits (dumps out) into an ocean, sea, or gulf -the silt starts building up and creates little island-like areas at the mouth of the river (where the river flows into the gulf, etc)
water vapor water that turns into gas-evaporated water coming from the water on the surface of the earth-the gas cools and condenses forming clouds
water cycle when the water goes from the oceans to the air to the ground and finally back to the oceans
evaporation the process of when the sun's heat turns liquid water into water vapor
condensation when water vapor CHANGES BACK into a liquid- the dropplets get cold (high altitude)& huddle together or _____________
Unit 1 precipitation water falling back to the earth in the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail, depending on the air temperature (cold=snow & heat=rain)
collection the process in the water cycle during which streams and rivers carry water back to the oceans--the oceans, seas, lakes, catch/hold the water
groundwater water that soaks through the soil and runs down into tiny cracks and holes in the rock layers below the surface of the earth--then runs to the lowest area
aquifers it is the underground ROCK LAYERS stacked so that the groundwater water gets trapped and fills up like a giant bowl of water underground
weather the unpredictable changes in the air that take place over a SHORT period of time
climate the usual, predictable pattern of weather (average amount PRECIPITATION AND average TEMPERATURE in a region over a LONG period of time--what's the climate like there (what's the weather like today)
Unit 1 Tropics low latitude region near the Equator between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn (some regions are very hot & rainy and some regions are hot and dry)--very warm/hot, EXCEPT in the HIGHLANDS
drought a long period of extreme dryness
El Nino combination of temperature, wind and water in the Pacific Ocean that causes heavy rains in some areas and drought in others-cause when east cold winds are weak allowing the Pacific to warm
La Nina pattern of unusual weather in the Pacific Ocean; winds from the east become very strong, cooling more of the Pacific
currents moving streams of water under water
local winds the patterns of wind caused by landforms in a particular area-'when the winds come whipping down the plains' (or whipping through canyons, and down mountains, etc) ex. Santa Ana Winds-southern California, sirroco winds from north Africa to Italy
greenhouse effect the buildup of certain gases in the atmosphere that, like a greenhouse, hold more of the sun's warmth
rain shadow a dry region on the 'LeeWard'(Less Water)side of the mountains-(the other side is on the coast. The wind blows over the water (windward side)-it rains on that side, leaving no H2O for the Leeward side.
Unit 1 rain forest dense (thick) forest that recieves high amounts of rain each year in tropics-list it's latitude belt____
Unit 1 savannas broad grasslands PLAINS with FEW trees hot,fairly dry-list it's latitude belt____
Unit 1 marine west coast climate weather patterns characterized by rainy and MILD winters and COOL summers-near large bodies of water -list it's latitude belt____
Unit 1 Mediterranean climate weather pattern characterized by rainy and MILD winters and HOT, dry summers-near large bodies of water list it's latitude belt____
Unit 1 humid subtropical climate (SUB means next to) climate with HOT, rainy summers and SHORT(3 MONTHS OR SO), MILD winters list it's latitude belt____
Unit 1 humid continental climate climate with long(or fairly long depending on the latitude), COLD and snowy winters and short (3 months or so), HOT summers-more inland- (hint: inner area of an ice cube / inner area of a piece of hot coal)
Unit 1 subartic climate (what does SUB mean?) climate with SEVERLY COLD and BITTER winters and SHORT (3 mo. or so), COOL summers
Unit 1 tundra vast (large amount), treeLESS PLAINS, FROZEN soil in winter
Unit 1 steppe partly/FAIRLY dry grassland PLAINS often found on the EDGES of a DESERTS
acid rain when chemicals in air pollution combine with precipitation
deforestation cutting down of forests without replanting them
crop rotation changing what is planted in a field to avoid using up all the same minerals in the soil
conservation the careful use of resources so they are not wasted
irrigate to pump water from a source (aquifer) through pipes to a giant sprinkler system to water farms
pesticides powerful chemicals that kill crop-destroying insects and can harm people, soil, water, animals
ecosystems places where plants and animals are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival-if pesticides or other chemicals polute the water, what happens?
Unit 1 culture the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs- ethnic group is the GROUP of people who share a culture
Unit 1 ethnic group a GROUP of people who share a common history, language, religion (there are 8 characteristics of culture--learn them all)-sometimes physical characteristics/traits can indicate an ethnic group--NOT ALWAYS.
Unit 1 dialect the local form of a language that differs from the same language in other areas-people in different parts of the same country and speak the same language have different words or slang expressions
democracy a form of limited government (the government has only a certain amount of power-limited) where all the people have equal power in the country- PEOPLE HAVE THE POWER
monarchy a king or queen inherits the right to rule and has unlimited power - KING/QUEEN HAS THE POWER
dictatorship an unlimited government (NO limits-THIS LEADER HAS ALL THE POWER)in which a dictator makes all laws and stops any opposition by FORCE
cultural diffusion the process of spreading new knowledge and skills to other cultures- U.S. students are learning Chinese and Spanish--Mexican food in the U.S., etc.
civilization highly developed cultures (know the 8 characteristics/traits of culture)- not a tribe of people roaming around
cultural region area of the world (may be more than one country together) that have TRAITS IN COMMON
death-rate the number of people out of every 1000 who die in a year
birthrate the number of children born each year for every 1000 people
famine lack of food -drought or insects may have ruined the crops in that region
population density the average number of people living in a square mile or square kilmeter
urbanization the movement of people from farms and villages to cities
emigrate when people leave the country where they were born and move to another country (they EXIT)
refugee a person who flees to another country to escape persecution(punishment) or disaster (hurricane)
natural resources proucts of the earth that people use to meet their needs- trees, oil, water
renewable resources resources that cannot be used up or they can be replced naturally or grown again- vegetation
nonrenewable resource minerals found in the earth's crust that cannot be renewed-(can't make more of it)- oil, gold, coal, iron, copper, etc.
economic system different types of governments have different SYSTEMs of how their people can to earn money & run businesses, what goods to produce & services are needed & how they are exchanged(bought & sold)
export a business company in China sells goods to a company (Dollars Store) in the U.S(goods exit the country)
import businesses in the U.S. buy & bring in the goods(items/stuff/products)from a business in a foreign country to sell to the people here -a company in China buys textiles from India & makes shirts-then a business in the U.S. may buy and bring the shirts here
tariff tax on imported goods(items/stuff/products)
quota number limit- Ex. a company in Germany is only allowed to sell 5 million cars to car companies in the U.S.
free trade removing trade barriers(keeps you from doing something) so that goods can trade easily amoung countries-(not a lot of taxes, tariffs, quotas) on goods/products being traded--which drives up the price/cost
developed countries countries that have strong governments and a lot of manufactuting/businesses with FEWER farmers and A LOT BIG businesses--like grown adults who work & can pay the bills
developing countries countries that are working toward industrialization (these countries have MORE farmers THAN businesses people & factory workers)-they are poorer countries-like a teenager still developing-not old enough work & pay all the bills
rights benefits and protections guarenteed to you by law
responsibilities duties that you owe to other citizens and your government
interdependence when countries help each other by trading goods- NO country has everything it needs- Ex.- a U.S. company sells metal to Japan, Japan makes a product/good(car)& sells to a car company in France & the car company sells to their people
globalization the development of a world culture & an interdependent economy (linking/connecting the world's nations by buying and selling goods)-needing each other for our resources (human & natural)and markets to sell the goods (countries with rich people to buy)
Created by: petersen123



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