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Cognitive Psych Attention, Preception and CBT

The Visual System receive sensory information through various sensory modalities
Vision Dominant Sense Big Area in the brain devoted to vision
Cause of Visual Perception light produced hits front surface of the eyeball which passes through the cornea and lens then hits the Retina
The Retina light sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eyeball
Cornea and Lens focus incoming light so a sharpe image hits the retina
2 types of Photoreceptors specialized neural cells that respond directly to incoming light - rods and cones
Rods sensitive to very low levels of light and key for moving around in dim lighting (color blind)
Cones less sensitive but requires more light to function but sensitive to color difference
Acuity cones have the ability to see fine details
Lateral inhibition capacity of excited neurons to reduce the activity of their neighbors
Optic nerve nerve tract that leaves the eyeball and carries info to various sites in the brain
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) info is sent to the LGN in the Thalamus which is then transmitted to the occipital lob
Single Cell Recording investigators can record moment by moment the pattern of electrical changes within a single neuron
Receptive Field the size and shape of the area in the visual world to which that cell response
Types of receptive fields center-surround cells orientation-specific visual field particular to size of angle corners and notches movement detectors
Parallel processing in the visual system strategy divide and conquer
Area V1 site in occipital lobe where info from LGN center the cortex
Neurons in the Area MT acutely sensitive to direction and speed of movement
Parallel Processing a system in which many different steps are going on simultaneously
serial processing steps are carried out one at a time
Advantages of parallel processing speed and possibility of mutual influence among multiple systems
P Cells provide main input for the LGN's parvocellular cells and appear to be specialized for spatial analysis and the detailed analysis of form
M Cells provide input for LGN Magnocellular cells and are specialized for the detection of motion and perception of depth
The What System key role in identification of visual objects
The Where System guides your actions based on your perception of where the object is in space
Blinding problem task of reuniting the various elements of a scene, elements that are initially addressed by a different system in different parts of the brain
Spatial position part of the brain registering the cup's shape is separate form the parts registering its color or motion
Importance of Spatial Position important for solving blinding problem and brain uses special rhythms to identify which sensory elements belong with which
Neural Synchrony if the neurons detecting a vertical line are firing with those signaling movement then these attributes are registered as belonging to the same object
Conjunction Errors likely to correctly detect the features present in visual display but make mistakes about how the features are bound together
Severe Attention Deficit caused by the brain damage in the parietal cortex impairing tasks that require judgement of how features are conjoined to form complex objects
Gestalt Psychology perception of the visual world is organized in ways that stimulus input is not
Necker Cube example of reversible image
Figure/ground organization the determinization of what is figure and what is the ground
The 5 principles of Gestalt similarity, proximity, good continuation, closure, simplicity
good continuation tend to see a continuous of a line
organization and features 1 - collect info about the stimulus so you know the visual features 2 - gather the raw data and interpret the info 3 - perception
Percepual constancy the fact that we perceive the constant properties of objects
size constancy correctly perceive the sizes of objects despite changes in retinal-image size created by distance
shape constancy correctly perceive the shape despite changes in retinal images created by shifts in angels
brightness constanct correctly perceive the brightness of objects whether light out or dim
unconscious inference we don't run conscious calculation when we perceive object's size but we are calculating
two table tops look different in shape and size but identical
monster illusion appear to be different sizes
contrast effect the central square in this figure is surrounded by dark squares and contrast makes the central square look brighter
distances cues features of the stimulus that indicate an object's position
binocular disparity difference between the two eyes' view
monocular distance cues perceive depth with one eye closed
pictorial cues impression of depth on a flat surface
interposition the blocking of your view of one object by some other object
linear perspective parallel lines seem to converge as they get farther from the viewer
motion parallax the projected images of nearby objects more more than those in the distant
optic flow the pattern of stimulation across the entire visual field changes as you more forward
Educated eye police focus on what will matter for investigation and experience helps you see certain combinations that are important
D.F. Lesions area in lateral occipital complex that is activated when healthy people recognize objects
apperceptive agnosia can see but can't recognize the elements they see in order to perceive the entire object
Bottom up processing recognition driven influenced by the stimulus
top down processing relying on your knowledge or concept driven processing
Created by: mdungan
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