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T and L Chapter 6

Sensory components of motor control

What are the three important sources of feedback involved in motor control? touch, proprioception, and vision.
Mechanoreceptors are sensory receptors that detect skin stretch and joint movement
Mechanoreceptors relay ______ _____ _____ to the CNS. tactile sensory information
Touch influences movement accuracy, consistency, timing, force adjustments, and distance.
Proprioception is the perception of limb, body, and head movement characteristics.
Information about limb movement direction, location in space, and velocity is sent to the CNS by afferent neural pathways.
Proprioception is transmitted by proprioceptors.
Proprioception influences movement accuracy, timing of the onset of motor commands, coordination of body segments, postural control, and spatial-temporal coupling.
Proprioceptors are located in muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
Muscle spindles detect change in muscle length.
Golgi-tendon organs detect change in muscle tension, or force
Joint receptors detect changes in joint movement at the extremes of angular movement and position.
Deafferentation used to make proprioceptive feedback unavailable
Without vision, movement is negatively affected.
Vision is the result of the sensory receptors of the eyes receiving and transmitting wavelengths of light to the visual cortex of the brain by way of the optic nerve.
Cornea a clear surface that covers the front of the eye
Pupil the opening in the eye that lets in light.
The amount of light detected by the eye influences the diameter of the pupil.
Iris the eye structure that surrounds the pupil and provides the eye its color.
Lens the transparent eye structure that sits just behind the iris.
This allows the eye to focus on various distances. lens
The neural aspects of vision begins with the _________. retina
_____ respond to low levels of light. rods
______ only respond to bright light. cones
Rods are concentrated at the ________. periphery
Cones are concentrated at the ________. center
Cones are critical in ______, ______, and ________. color vision, visual acuity, and central vision.
Waves are __________ in the retina. refracted
Axons of neurons in the retina called ganglion cells form the optic nerve
The optic nerve is cranial nerve number what? 2
The optic nerves from the two eyes meet near the base of the brain and form the optic chiasm
Visual field refers to the image or scene being viewed.
Central vision detects information only in the middle 2 to 5 degrees of the visual field.
Peripheral vision detects information outside of the middle 2 to 5 degrees of the visual field.
_______ ________ is needed for the successful achievement of the action goal. central vision
Central vision is related to visual acuity
Peripheral vision is related to velocity and control
_______ allows action initiation and object contact to occur automatically at a specific time to contact tau
_____ allows us to recognize and describe what we see vision-for-perception
______allows us to move in our environment vision-for -action
When there is a sufficient amount of time, people can make movement corrections
Movement errors may occur due to movement or environmental conditions that were _____ _____ to allow for a correction. too fast
Vertical visual field is how many degrees? 160
Horizontal visual field is how many degrees? 200
Binocular vision is seeing with both eyes.
Created by: millymarie98
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