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Rivers

Year 7 Geography - A Rivers Journey

QuestionAnswer
Three processes through which a river changes the land Weathering. Erosion. Deposition.
Erosion the wearing away of rocks by a river
weathering breaks up material due to rain and changing temperatures
deposition where material is deposited
three stages/courses of a river upper, middle, lower
an example of a source of a river a spring or bog
how does a v-shaped valley form? forms in the upper course of the river as it erodes down
What happens to the width and depth of a river as it reaches the middle course? It becomes wider and deeper
What is a floodplain The area around the river that is covered in times of flood
Why are floodplains good for growing crops? Very fertile area due to the rich alluvium deposited by floodwaters
Alluvium Very fine sediment
What are floodplains a good place for agriculture
What features are found in the lower course of a river Meanders, ox-bow lakes, levees, floodplains, the mouth
Features found in Upper course of a river V Shaped valley, Source, Waterfalls, Interlocking spurs
Features found in middle course of a river U-Shaped valley, meanders
Meander Bend in the river
The journey of a river from start to finish is called the course
The start of a river is called the source
What do a tree and a river have in common Both contain water, have branches, main channel/trunk, both habitats
What is a drainage basin Area of land that is drained by a river and it's tributaries. When a droplet of water falls onto the land as precipitation) gravity will make sure that water is "pulled" downhill to return to sea.
Catchment area The area within a drainage basin
Watershed The edge of highland surrounding a drainage basin which marks the boundary between two drainage basins
Confluence The point at which two rivers or streams join
Tributary A stream or smaller river which joins and larger stream or river
Mouth The point where the river comes to the end, usually when entering the sea.
abrasion where sediments in the water rub against the bank and bed of the river and wear them away
attrition where pebbles collide and get smaller, rounder
hydraulic action where the force of the water hitting the banks breaks up the river bank
solution where the river dissolves some of the rocks
droplets inside the clouds grow into larger droplets leading to precipitation
Gorge steep sided narrow valley that forms as a waterfall retreats
sediment material carried by a river - rocks, pebbles, mud, sand, leaves, twigs etc
How does a waterfall form Soft rock erodes more quickly, undercutting the hard rock. Hard rock is left overhanging and isn’t supported so eventually collapses. Fallen rocks crash into plunge pool, swirl around, causing more erosion.
How does a meander form As the river flows around a meander, centrifugal forces cause the water to flow fastest around the outside of the bend creating erosion on the outside and deposition on the inside of the bend.
centrifugal forces the apparent force that is felt by an object moving in a curved path that acts outwardly away from the center of rotation (imagine being on a roundabout and feeling the force that pushes you outwards)
How is an ox-bow lake formed? A meander in the river may be cut off and deposition fills the section that no longer flows. This forms an ox-bow lake.
How is a river beach formed? The river carries it's material (its load ) which is deposited (or laid down) and builds up to form a gently sloping area of land called a river beach.
Steep river cliff or bluff The greatest force of water is on the outside bend where the river flows fastest. This causes the bank on the outside bend to erode and forms a steep cliff or bluff.
Created by: Frankiek
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