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Chapter 2

Human Development

Chapter 2 Theory and Research
coherent set of logically related concepts that seek to describe and explain development and to predict what kinds of behavior might occur under certain conditions theory
What do theories do? organize and explain data
information gathered by research data
Research adds information to theoretical concepts to _. see connections between isolated pieces of data
What purpose theories serve? predict results
tentative explanations or predictions used to predict the outcome of research hypotheses
Can research indicate whether a theory is accurate in its predictions? yes
Can research conclusively show a theory to be true? no
Can theories change? Why? yes, to account for unexpected data
Is developmental science completely objective? Why? no, we are human, interpretations are influenced by values and experience
What 3 views can influence a theorist's assumptions in human development? 1) whether people are active or reactive in their own development, 2) whether development is continuous or occurs in stages, 3) heredity vs environment
Explain the relationship between theories, research and hypotheses. research creates hypotheses (predictions based on research) and hypotheses create theories (logical concepts that explain data)
John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau had to contrasting philosophies for development. What were the two categories? mechanistic and organism
model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli mechanistic model
People are like machines that react to environmental input is an example of what? mechanistic model
model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages organismic model
People are active, growing organisms that set their own development in motion. They initiate events, not just react is an example of what? organismic model
What do environmental influences do to organismic development? Cause it? do not cause it, can speed it up or slow it down
development that is gradual and incremental continuous (like a ramp)
development that is abrupt and uneven discontinuous (like steps)
These theorists see development as continuous. mechanistic
These theorists see development as discontinuous. organismic
change in number or amount, such as height, weight or size of vocabulary quantitative change
change in kind, structure or organization , such as from nonverbal to verbal communication qualitative change
This change is largely continuous and unidirectional. quantitative change
This change is discontinuous. qualitative change
Mechanistic theorists deal with ¬_ change. quantitative
Organismic theorists deal with _ change. qualitative
Qualitative change or quantitative change: baby gains three pounds quantitative
Qualitative change or quantitative change: nonverbal baby begins to speak qualitative
Which theorist believes development is universal; everyone goes through the same stages in same order at varying times. organismic
Contrast mechanistic and organismic models. mechanistic- environment makes people grow, organismic- people naturally grow
view of development as shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior psychoanalytic perspective
give patients insights into unconscious emotional conflicts from buried memories psychoanalysis
_ operates under the pleasure principle. id
pleasure principle immediate gratification of needs and desires
_operates under the reality principle ego
reality principle realistic ways to gratify the id
_ includes the conscious and should/should not superego
Id/Ego/Superego: impulses id
Id/Ego/Superego: demands superego
Id/Ego/Superego: mediator ego
Who proposed psychosexual development? Freud
unvarying sequence of stages in childhood personality development, gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus to the genitals psychosexual development
an arrest in development that can show up in the adult personality fixation
When does the phallic stage occur? early childhood
When does the latency stage occur? middle childhood
When does the genital stage occur? throughout adulthood
babies chief source of pleasure involves mouth oriented activities oral stage (birth to 12-18 months)
child gets gratification from withholding and expelling feces anal stage (12-18 months to 3 years)
children develop sexual attachment to opposite sex parents, aggressive toward same sex parent phallic stage (3 to 6 years)
superego develops phallic stage (3 to 6 years)
period of relative emotional calm and intellectual and social exploration latency stage (6 years to puberty)
repressed sexual urges flow into socially approved channels, mature adult sexuality genital stage (puberty through adulthood)
Are Freud’s sexual theories widely followed today? Why? no, most are rejected for narrow mindedness
Are Freud’s conscious theories widely followed today? Why? yes, importance of unconscious thoughts, feelings, motivations
What is the chief focus of the psychoanalytic perspective? being shaped by unconscious forces
What are Freud’s 5 stages of development? oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
What are Erikson’s 8 stages of development? 1) basic trust/mistrust, 2) autonomy/shame and doubt, 3) initiative/guilt, 4) industry/inferiority, 5) identity/identity confusion, 6) intimacy/isolation, 7) generativity /stagnation, 8) integrity/despair
baby develops sense of whether world is good safe place basic trust vs mistrust (birth to 12-18 months)
develop balance of independence and self sufficiency over shame and doubt autonomy vs shame and doubt (12-18 months to 3 years)
develops initiative when trying new activities instead of guilt initiative vs guilt (3 to 6 years)
learn skills of culture or face incompetence industry vs inferiority (6 years to puberty)
develop sense of self or feel confusion between roles identity vs identity confusion (puberty to young adulthood)
seek to make commitment to others, unsuccessful- isolation or self-absorption intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood)
establish and guild next generation or feels impoverishment generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood)
accept life and death or despair over inability to relive integrity vs despair (late adulthood)
Which virtue for: basic trust vs mistrust (birth to 12-18 months)? hope
Which virtue for: autonomy vs shame and doubt (12-18 months to 3 years) will
Which virtue for: initiative vs guilt (3 to 6 years) purpose
Which virtue for: industry vs inferiority (6 years to puberty) skill
Which virtue for: identity vs identity confusion (puberty to young adulthood) fidelity
Which virtue for: intimacy vs isolation (young adulthood) love
Which virtue for: generativity vs stagnation (middle adulthood) care
Which virtue for: integrity vs despair (late adulthood) wisdom
Who proposed psychosocial stages? Erikson
Who proposed cognitive stages? Piaget
infant gradually becomes able to organize activities in relation to environment through sensory and motor activity sensorimotor (birth to 2 years)
child uses symbols to represent things, developing language and imagination, thinking is not logical preoperational (2 to 7 years)
child can solve current problems logically but cannot think abstractly concrete operations (7 to 11 years)
person can think abstractly, hypothetical situations, think about possibilities formal operations (11 years through adulthood)
How did Erikson expand on Freud’s theory? emphasizing the influence of society
socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego psychosocial development
Each of Erikson’s psychosocial stages had what to do with the personality? a crisis in personality that need to be solved for healthy ego development
Each of Erikson’s stages do what? balance a positive and negative tendency
Each of Erikson’s stages can only be completed successfully, how? developing a particular virtue
Name two ways Erikson’s theories differ from Freud’s. Erikson includes society’s influence, Erikson’s stages can be solved successfully with
changes in behavior result from experience or from adaptation to the environment learning perspective
What do learning theorists seek to discover? objective laws that govern changes in observable behavior
Do learning theorists focus on continuous or discontinuous development? continuous
Do learning theorists focus on quantitative or qualitative change? quantitative
What are the two important learning theories? behaviorism or traditional learning theory and social learning theory
Is behaviorism a mechanistic or organismic theory? mechanistic
This theory describes observed behavior as a predictable response to experience. behaviorism
How do humans learn about the world? reacting to conditions like things they find pleasing, painful, threatening
mental link is formed between two events associative learning
What are the two kinds of associative learning? classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Who discovered classical conditioning with dogs salivating with a bell ring? Ivan Pavlov
learning based on association of a stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a response with another stimulus that does elicit a response classical conditioning
learning based on association of behavior with its consequences operant conditioning
Name 2 ways operant and classical conditioning are different. classical is associative and involuntary, operant is behavior and consequence learning and voluntary
Who formulated the principals of operant conditioning? B. F. Skinner
the process by which a behavior is strengthened reinforcement
increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated reinforcement
the process by which a behavior is weakened punishment
decreases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated punishment
If a response is no longer reinforced, what will happen? it will extinguish, return to original level
operant conditioning used to eliminate bad behavior, reinforce good behavior behavior modification
Who developed the principals of social learning theory? Albert Bandura
behaviors are learned by observing and imitating models social learning theory
bidirectional forces that affect development, “the person acts on the world as the world acts on the person” reciprocal determinism
learning through watching the behavior of others observational learning
updated version of social learning theory, greater emphasis on cognitive processes as central development social cognitive theory
sense of one’s capability to master challenges and achieve goals self-efficacy
What are the chief concerns of the learning perspective? development results from learning and people having predictable responses and learned responses
Contrast reinforcement and punishment. reinforcement strengthens and encourages, punishment weakens and discourages
Compare behaviorism and social learning theory environment causes observable behavior
thought processes are central to development cognitive perspective
Contrast behaviorism and social learning theory. behaviorism- world acts on person, social learning theory- act on each other
thought processes are central to development cognitive perspective
Who is the founder of the cognitive-stage theory? Jean Piaget
theory that children's cognitive development advances in a series of four stages involving qualitatively distinct types of mental operations cognitive-stage theory
research method combining observation and flexible questioning clinical method
How does cognitive development begin? with an inborn ability to adapt to the environment
According to Piaget, cognitive growth occurs through which 3 interrelated processes? organization, adaptation, equilibration
creation of categories or systems of knowledge organization
organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations schemes
Give an example of organization. four legged animal becomes dog or cat
Give an example of a scheme. sucking becomes at a bottle or a thumb
adjustment to new information about the environment adaptation
Through what two processes does adaptation occur? assimilation, accommodation
incorporating new information into existing cognitive structures assimilation
changes in cognitive structure to include new information accommodation
Contrast assimilation and accommodation. assimilation information fits in, accommodation cognitive structure changes
Give an example of assimilation. baby who goes from bottle to sucking on sippy cup (old scheme, new situation)
Give an example of accommodation. baby who goes from bottle to sucking on sippy cup then modifies old scheme for sucking
seek a stable balance among cognitive elements (assimilation and accommodation) equilibration
_ dictates the shift from assimilation to accommodation equilibration (equilibrium)
What are the stages in Piaget's cognitive development?
Are Piaget's cognitive development stages qualitative or quantitative? qualitative
How do mental operations evolve from infancy through adolescence? go from simple sensory to and motor activity to logical and abstract thinking
Who has Piaget's theories helped? parents and educators
What is 3 problems with Piaget's theories? underestimated abilities of infants, distinct stages that may be more gradual, not account for practical problem solving
What are Piaget's 3 principals of growth? organization, adaptation, equilibration
Which scientist founded the sociocultural theory? Lev Semenovich Vygotsky
Did Piaget or Vygotsky 's theory describe solo-minded taking in and interpretation of information in the world? Piaget, cognitive stage theory
Did Piaget or Vygotsky's theory describe children learning through social interaction? Vygotsky, sociocultural theory
According to Vygotsky, what importance does language hold? an essential means of learning and thinking about the world AND expression of knowledge and thought
According to Vygotsky, what must adults help a child do to develop? Why? direct and organize a child's learning, so the child can master and internalize it
difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help zone of proximal development (ZPD)
temporary support to help a child master a task scaffolding
approach to the study of cognitive development by observing and analyzing mental processes involved in perceiving and handling information information processing approach
Is the information processing approach a single theory or the frame work for many theories? frame work for many theories
How is the information processing approach like a computer? sensory impressions go in, behavior comes out
flowcharts that analyze specific steps that people go through to gather, store, retrieve and use information computational models
How are information processing theorists like Piaget? see people as active thinkers about their world
How are information processing theorists different from Piaget? information processing theorists do not propose stages of development, but view it as continuous
How can the information processing approach be used in practical application? Name 3 ways. help children learn better, test/diagnose/treat problems, estimate an infant’s later intelligence
How is Vygotsky’s theory different from Piaget’s? Piaget– solo minded learning about the world, Vygotsky – children learn through social interaction
What do information processing researchers do? infer what happens between a stimulus and a response
What do neo-piagetian theorists suggest? children develop cognitively by becoming more efficient at processing information
Tell how the neo-piagetian theory draws from both Piaget and the information processing approach. focus on specific concepts and comparisons such as more or less in skills and strategies
view of human development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context contextual perspective
Who was the founder of the bioecological theory? Urie Bronfenbrenner
understanding processes and contexts of human development that identifies five levels of environmental influence from very intimate to very broad bioecological theory
Name the five levels of environmental influence according to the bioecological theory, from smallest to largest. microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, chronosystem
_ system is the everyday environment of home, school, work, etc., including face to face relationships with close people microsystem
_ system is the interlocking of various microsystems (link between home and work or school and neighborhood) mesosystem
_ system contains links between microsystem and the outside systems that affect a person indirectly (transit system affects job opportunities) exosystem
_ system consists of overarching cultural patterns (such as dominant beliefs and political systems) macrosystem
_ system adds the dimension of time: change or constancy in the person and environment (change in family structure or economic cycles) chronosystem
According to Bronfenbrenner, is a person an outcome of development or a shaper of it? both
State the chief assumptions of the contextual perspective. there are 5 levels of influence on people
view of human development that focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of behavior evolutionary/sociobiological perspective
Who founded the evolutionary/sociobiological perspective? E. O. Wilson
behaviors that are developed to solve problems in adapting to an earlier environment evolved mechanisms
study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of species of animals that have evolved to increase survival of the species ethology
What do ethologists seek to identify? which behaviors are universal and which are specific to a particular species or are modified by culture
applies Darwin principals to individual behavior evolutionary psychology
According the evolutionary psychology, what do people unconsciously strive for? for personal survival AND perpetuate their genetic legacy
_ approach views human development as the outcome of a dynamic process of bidirectional interaction between person and environment. developmental systems approach
What do evolutionary psychologists study? how people adapt to and develop from the environment
How does Darwin’s theory of evolution underlie the evolutionary/sociobiological perspective? people’s behavior adapts to their environment, the strongest genes survive
What perspectives do current day developmental scientists favor? biological and evolutionary bases of behavior AND continuity in development rather than abrupt stages
What is a bidirectional influence? people change their world even as it changes them
research that deals with objectively measureable data quantitative research
research that focuses on non-numerical data, such as subjective experiences qualitative data
Quantitative or qualitative research: a standardized test to measure fear before surgery. quantitative
Quantitative or qualitative research: describe emotions before a surgery. qualitative
_ research is based on the scientific method. quantitative
system of established principals and processes of scientific inquiry scientific method
Name the 6 steps of scientific method. 1) identify problem to study, 2) formulate hypothesis, 3) collect data, 4) analyze data, 5) form tentative conclusions, 6) disseminate findings so others can test
_ research is open-minded and exploratory. qualitative
group of participants chosen to represent the entire population under study sample
Why do researchers not test an entire population? too costly, too time consuming
applied to the population as a whole generalized
selection of a sample so that each person in a population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen random selection
The result of random selection is _. random sample
Is a random sample of a large population difficult or easy to obtain? difficult
Compare quantitative and qualitative research. they are both research methods focused on obtaining information
What is the purpose of random selection? to gather a sample of people from a population in a way that gives everyone an equal chance
What is a main characteristic of self report data collection? participants are asked about an aspect of their lives by diary, interview or questionnaire
What is a main characteristic of naturalistic observation data collection? people are observed in their normal setting with no attempt to manipulate behavior
What is a main characteristic of laboratory observation data collection? people are observed in a laboratory with no attempt to manipulate behavior
What is a main characteristic of behavioral and performance measures data collection? participates are measured on abilities, skills, knowledge, competency or physical responses
What is an advantage of self-report data collection? can provide firsthand information about person’s life
What is an advantage of naturalistic observation data collection? provides good description of behavior, unnatural settings to not distort behavior
What is an advantage of laboratory observation data collection? provides good description of behavior, greater control than naturalistic, all participants observed under same conditions
What is an advantage of behavioral and performance measures data collection? provides objectively measureable data, avoids subjective distortions
What is a disadvantage of self-report data collection? participate may not remember information accurately or may distort responses, how asked or by whom may affect answer
What is a disadvantage of naturalistic observation data collection? lack of control, observer bias
What is a disadvantage of laboratory observation data collection? observer bias, controlled situation may be artificial
What is a disadvantage of behavioral and performance measures data collection? cannot measure attitudes
What are the 4 major methods for gathering data? self report, naturalistic observation, laboratory observation, behavioral and performance measures
research method in which behavior is studied in natural settings without intervention or manipulation naturalistic observation
research method in which all participants are observed under the same controlled conditions laboratory observation
What is a problem with observation data collection as a whole? it does not explain why people behave the way they do
a researcher’s tendency to interpret data to fit expectation or to emphasize some aspects and minimize others observer bias
What is a way to make naturalistic observation more accurate and objective? digital recorders
A test has to be _ to measure the abilities it claims to measure. valid
A test has to be _ for the results to be reasonably constant from one time to another. reliable
definition stated solely in terms of the operations or procedures used to produce or measure a phenomenon operational definition
study of links between neural processes and cognitive abilities cognitive neuroscience
What are four basic designs used in developmental research? case studies, ethnographic studies, correlation studies, experiments
a plan for conducting a scientific investigation, including questions to be asked, how participants are selected, how data is collected and interpreted, how conclusions drawn research design
What is a main characteristic of a case study in research design? in-depth study of single individual
What is a main characteristic of an ethnographic study in research design? in-depth study of a culture or subculture
What is a main characteristic of a correlational study in research design? attempt to find a positive or negative relationship between variables
What is a main characteristic of an experiment in research designs? controlled procedure in which an experimenter controls the independent variable to determine its effect on the dependant variable, in lab or field
What is an advantage of a case study in research designs? flexibility, detailed picture of behavior/development, can generate hypotheses
What is an advantage of an ethnographical study in research designs? can overcome culturally based biases in theory and research, can test universality of developmental phenomena
What is an advantage of a correlational study in research designs? enables predication of one variable on basis of another
What is an advantage of an experiment in research designs? establishes cause and effect relationships, highly controlled, can be repeated
What is an advantage of a case study in research designs? may not generalize to others, conclusions not directly testable, cannot establish cause and effect
What is an advantage of an ethnographical study in research designs? subject to observer bias
What is an advantage of a correlational study in research designs? cannot establish cause and effect
What is an advantage of an experiment in research designs? findings may not generalize situations
study of a single subject, such as individual or family case study
in-depth study of culture which uses a combination of methods including participant observation ethnographic study
research method in which the observer lives with people or participates in the activity being observed participant observation
research design intended to discover whether a statistical relationship between variables exists correlational study
An ethnographic study seeks to describe what? the pattern of relationships, customs, beliefs, technology, arts and traditions that make up a society’s way of life
Correlations are expressed in terms of _ and _. direction (positive or negative) and magnitude (degree)
To what degree can a correlation be positive or negative? -1 to +1
Are correlations a hypothesis? yes
Do strong correlations show cause and effect? no, but we can be sure they are related
rigorously controlled, replicable procedure in which the researcher manipulates variables to assess the effect of one on the other experiment
Why is cross cultural research important? to help eliminate bias from Western culture “norms”
in an experiment, the group of people receiving the treatment under study experimental group
in an experiment, the group of people not receiving the treatment under study control group
study in which neither participants nor experimenters know who is receiving the treatment double blind study
a “fake” drug used as a control drug placebo
in an experiment, the condition over which the experimenter has direct control independent variable
in an experiment, the condition that may or may not change as a result of changes in the independent variable dependent variable
When a researcher has variables, he changes the _ variable. independent
When a researcher has variables, he does not change the _ variable, it changes on its own dependent
assignment of participants in an experiment to groups in such a way that each person has an equal chance of being placed in any group random selection
How does random assignment differ from random selection? random selection determines who gets in the full sample, random assignment sorts people into groups
What can contaminate an experiment group? not a large enough sample, not enough difference in people, such as by age, gender or height
The control necessary for establishing cause and effect is most easily achieved in _. laboratory experiment
a controlled study conducted in an everyday setting field experiment
In what two ways do laboratory and field experiments differ? degree of control, degree the findings can be generalized after the study
experiment that compares people who have been accidentally assigned to separate groups by circumstances of life natural experiment
Name 2 advantages that experiments have over other research designs. can establish cause-effect relationship, permit replication
Name 2 disadvantages that experiments have over other research designs. too artificial, too narrowly focused
Why can only a controlled experiment establish casual relationships? because they are controlled and everything except for one variable is the same
What are the two most common research strategies used to study development? cross-sectional and longitudinal
_ studies show similarities and differences among age groups. cross sectional
_ studies reveal how people stay the same or change as they get older. longitudinal
What is the procedure of cross-sectional study? data collected from people of different ages at the same time
What is the procedure of longitudinal study? data collected from the same people over a period of time
What is the procedure of sequential study? data collected from successive cross-sectional or cross
What is the advantage of cross-sectional study? can show similarities and differences among age groups, speedy, economical, no problem of repeated testing
What is the advantage of longitudinal study? can show age related change, continuity, avoids confusing age with cohort effects
What is the advantage of sequential study? can avoid drawbacks of both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
What is the disadvantage of cross-sectional study? cannot establish age effects, masks individual differences, can be confused with cohort effects
What is the disadvantage of longitudinal study? time-consuming, expensive, have to repeat, bias in sample, results may only be valid for person studied
What is the disadvantage of sequential study? large amount of time and effort, analysis of complex data
study designed to assess age-related differences, in which people of different ages are assessed on one occasion cross-sectional study
study designed to assess age changes in a sample over time longitudinal study
study design that combines cross-sectional and longitudinal techniques sequential study
In a cross-sectional study, can the researcher see whether any change in thinking occurs? no
What ethical problems may arise in research on humans? embarrassment, physical harm, emotional trauma
consent freely given with full knowledge of what the research entails informed consent
Name 6 requirements for study according to the American Psychological Association. informed consent, avoidance of deception, protection from harm and loss of dignity, guarantee privacy and confidentiality, right to decline or withdraw at any time, correct undesirable effects
obligation to maximize potential benefits and minimize harm beneficence
When resolving ethical dilemmas, researches have to follow 3 principals. What are they? beneficence, respect, justice
What purposes do theories serve? to organize and explain data and generate hypotheses that can be tested by research
What are two basic theoretical issues on which developmental scientists differ? active or reactive character, existence of continuity or discontinuity in development
What are the two contrasting models of human development? mechanistic or organismic
What are the five theoretical perspectives on human development? psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, contextual, evolutionary/sociobiological
What is the psychoanalytic perspective of development? development is motivated by unconscious emotional drives and conflicts
Which two people have psychoanalytic theories for development? Freud and Erickson
What is the learning perspective of development? result of learning based experience
What is Freud's psychoanalytic development theory? psychosexual development
What is Erikson's psychoanalytic development theory? psychosocial development
Which three people have learning theories for development? Watson, Skinner, Bandura
What is Watson's learning development theory? behaviorism
What is Skinner's learning development theory? behaviorism
What is Bandura's learning development theory? social learning theory
What is the cognitive perspective of development? thought processes between birth and adulthood
Which three people have cognitive theories for development? Piaget, Vygotsky, Neo-Paigetian
What is Piaget's learning development theory? cognitive stage theory
What is Vygotsky's learning development theory? sociocultural theory
What is Neo-Paigetian's learning development theory? information-processing theory
What is the contextual perspective of development? individual in a social context
Which person has a contextual theory for development? Bronfenbrenner
What is Bronfenbrenner's contextual development theory? bioecological theory
What is the evolutionary/sociobiological perspective of development? evolution, adaptiveness in behavior development
Which person has a evolutionary/sociobiological theory for development? Bowlby
What is Bowlby's learning development theory? attachment
What methods do developmental scientists use to study people? self report, naturalistic observation, laboratory observation, behavioral and performance measures
What research designs do developmental scientists use to study people? case study, ethnographical study, correlation study, experiment
What is quantitative research? research by what you can measure
What is qualitative research research by how participant feels
How do quantitative researchers arrive at sound conclusions? by using the scientific method
What can random selection of a research sample ensure? generalizability
What is a research design? a plan for conducting research
What are the two qualitative designs used in developmental research? case study, ethnographical study
What are the two quantitative designs used in developmental research? correlation study, experiment
What can cross-cultural research help determine? if an aspect of development is universal or culturally influenced
Which research design is the only one that can establish causal relationships? experiments
Why must experiments be rigorously controlled? to ensure valid and replicable
What does random assignment of participants in an experiment ensure? validity
Which experiment setting is easiest to control? What is the problem with this setting? laboratory, it is less generalizable
Why are natural experiments sometimes used? because the true experiment would be impractical or unethical
What are the two most common designs used to study age-related development? cross-sectional, longitudinal
What do cross-sectional studies access? age related differences among participants
What do longitudinal studies access? continuity or change in the same participants
What ethical problems may arise in research on humans? mental, emotional or physical injury
What three ethical principals are used in research on humans? beneficence, respect, justice
What rights do participants have in research studies? informed consent, quit at any time, avoidance of deception, protection from harm/loss of dignity/self-esteem, guarantee privacy/confidentiality
What is the standard for protection of children in research studies? informed parental consent, protection from harm or jeopardy to the child's well being
Created by: love_fire_roses