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south asia key terms

Monsoon Refers to the seasonal reversal of wind and moisture flows in certain parts of the subtropics and lower-middle latitudes. The dry monsoon occurs during the cool season when dry offshore winds prevail. The wet monsoon occurs in the hot summer months, w
Indo-European languages The major world language family that dominates the European geographic realm. This language family is also the most widely dispersed globally (Fig. G-8), and about half of humankind speaks one of its languages.
Dravidian languages The language family, indigenous to the South Asian realm, that dominates southern India today; as opposed to the Indo-European languages, whose tongues dominate northern India.
Partition The subdivision of the British Indian Empire into India and Pakistan at the end of colonial rule on August 15, 1947.
Forward Capital Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the area of contention.
Population density The number of people per unit area. Also see arithmetic density and physiologic density measures.
Physiologic density The number of people per unit area of arable land
Demographic transition Multi-stage model, based on western Europe’s experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates and death rates are followed by plunging death rates, producing a huge net population gain; bir
Fertility rate More precisely the Total Fertility Rate, it is the average number of children born to women of childbearing age in a given population.
Population pyramid Graphic representation or profile of a national population according to age and gender. Such a diagram of age-sex structure typically displays the percentage of each age group (commonly in five-year increments) as a horizontal bar, whose length rep
Sex ratio A demographic indicator showing the ratio of males to females in a given population.
Communal tension Persistent stress among a country’s sociocultural groups that can often erupt into communal violence, particularly in India.
Hindutva “Hinduness” as expressed through Hindu nationalism, Hindu heritage, and/or Hindu patriotism. The cornerstone of a fundamentalist movement that has been gaining strength since the late twentieth century that seeks to remake India as a societh
Caste system The strict social stratification and residential segregation of people—specifically in India’s Hindu society—on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Outsourcing Term referring to financial havens for foreign companies and individuals, who channel their earnings to accounts in such a country (usually an “offshore” island-state) to avoid paying taxes in their home countries.
NGO A legitimate organization that operates independently from any form of government and does not function as a for-profit business. Mostly seeks to improve social conditions, but is not affiliated with political organizations.
Micro-credit Small loans extended to poverty-stricken borrowers who would not otherwise qualify for them. The aim is to help combat poverty, encourage entrepreneurship, and to empower poor communities—especially their women.
Buffer state A country or set of countries separating ideological or political adversaries. In southern Asia, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Bhutan were parts of a buffer zone set up between British and Russian-Chinese imperial spheres. Thailand was a buffer state betwee
Taliban The term means “students” or “seekers of religion.” Specifically, refers to the Islamist militia group that emerged from madrassas in Pakistan and ruled neighboring Afghanistan between 1996 and 2001; it has been trying to regain control of that country in
al-Qaeda The terrorist organization that evolved into an expanding global network under the directorship of Usama bin Laden between the mid-1990s and his elimination by the U.S. in 2011. It sought to coordinate the efforts of once loosely allied Muslim revolution
Rising sea level One of the expected major impacts of global climate change on the world ocean resulting from the large-scale melting of Arctic and Antarctic ice. Low-lying coastal settlements and human activities are at greatest risk of inundation. Worldwide, hug
Drone warfare The use of remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as delivery systems to conduct military attacks. Tactical advantages include highly precise targeting, long flight times without refueling, difficulty of detection from the ground, and advanc
Created by: Pl250921
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