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South Asia Key Terms

Monsoon Refers to the seasonal reversal of wind and moisture flows in certain parts of the subtropics and lower-middle latitudes. The dry monsoon occurs during the cool season when dry offshore winds prevail.
Indo-European languages The major world language family that dominates the European geographic realm.
Dravidian languages The language family, indigenous to the South Asian realm, that dominates southern India today; as opposed to the Indo-European languages, whose tongues dominate northern India.
Partition The subdivision of the British Indian Empire into India and Pakistan at the end of colonial rule on August 15, 1947.
Forward Capital Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the area of contention. Ex: Brasília
Population density The number of people per unit area.
Physiologic density The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Demographic transition Multi-stage model, based on western Europe’s experience, of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization.
Fertility rate More precisely the Total Fertility Rate, it is the average number of children born to women of childbearing age in a given population.
Population pyramid Graphic representation or profile of a national population according to age and gender. Such a diagram of age-sex structure typically displays the percentage of each age group.
Sex ratio A demographic indicator showing the ratio of males to females in a given population.
Communal tension Persistent stress among a country’s sociocultural groups that can often erupt into communal violence, particularly in India.
Hindutva “Hinduness” as expressed through Hindu nationalism, Hindu heritage, and/or Hindu patriotism.
Caste system The strict social stratification and residential segregation of people—specifically in India’s Hindu society—on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Outsourcing The subcontracting of specific business tasks, such as subscriptions or payroll, to another, specialized, company (sometimes abroad), at lower cost.
(Non-governmental organization) NGO A legitimate organization that operates independently from any form of government and does not function as a for-profit business. Mostly seeks to improve social conditions, but is not affiliated with political organizations.
Micro-credit Small loans extended to poverty-stricken borrowers who would not otherwise qualify for them. The aim is to help combat poverty, encourage entrepreneurship, and to empower poor communities—especially their women.
Buffer state A country or set of countries separating ideological or political adversaries. In southern Asia, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Bhutan were parts of a buffer zone set up between British and Russian-Chinese imperial spheres.
Taliban The term means “students” or “seekers of religion.” Specifically, refers to the Islamist militia group that emerged from madrassas in Pakistan and ruled neighboring Afghanistan between 1996 and 2001.
al-Qaeda The terrorist organization that evolved into an expanding global network under the directorship of Usama bin Laden between the mid-1990s and his elimination by the U.S. in 2011.
Rising sea level One of the expected major impacts of global climate change on the world ocean resulting from the large-scale melting of Arctic and Antarctic ice. Low-lying coastal settlements and human activities are at greatest risk of inundation.
Drone warfare The use of remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as delivery systems to conduct military attacks.
Created by: pl239801
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