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# Psych - Unit 1 Y11

### Unit 1 of Grade 11 Psychology study notes.

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the 1st Step of the Scientific Method? | Identify the area of research and form an aim. |

What is the 2nd Step of the Scientific Method? | Collect information. |

What is the 3rd Step of the Scientific Method? | Identify research question and form a hypothesis. |

What is the 4th Step of the Scientific Method? | Design a research method and test hypothesis. |

What is the 5th Step of the Scientific Method? | Collect and analyse data. |

What is the 6th Step of the Scientific Method? | Draw a conclusion and accept or reject the hypothesis. |

What is the 7th Step of the Scientific Method? | Report findings. |

What is the 8th Step of the Scientific Method? | Test the conclusion. |

What is the general definition of a variable? | A quantity or quality that can be different in different times or in different places. |

What is the psychological definition of a variable? | Properties that vary from person to person or within the same person at different times. |

List three examples of variables. | Age, race, gender, IQ, aggression, feelings of well being. |

What is an Independent Variable (IV)? | An Independent Variable (IV) is the property that is deliberated manipulated or varied. |

What is a Dependent Variable (DV)? | A Dependent Variable (DV) is the property that is measured. It will change as a result of manipulated of the Independent Variable (IV). |

What is an Extraneous Variable? | An Extraneous Variable is a variable other than the Independent Variable (IV) that can cause changes in the Dependent Variable (DV). |

What is a Controlled Variable? | When the potential effects of an Extraneous Variable are removed from the experiment the variable is said to be a Controlled Variable. |

What is a Confounding Variable? | A Confounding Variable is a variable other than the Independent Variable (IV) that will have a systematic effect on the Dependent Variable (DV). |

What is a Hypothesis? | A statement predicting how changes to the Independent Variable (IV) will affect the value of the Dependent Variable (DV). |

What is a Null Hypothesis? | A Null Hypothesis state that the Independent Variable (IV) will have no effect on the Dependent Variable (DV), or that changes in the DV are unrelated to changes to the IV. |

What is an Alternative Hypothesis? | States that there will be a relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable. |

What is a Population? | Group that conclusions are drawn about. |

What is Convenience Sampling? | Uses participants that are easily available to researchers. Unlikely that it is representative of the population. |

What is Random Sampling? | Every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. |

What is Stratified Sampling? | Populations are divided into groups (strata), from which samples are taken. Variables (strata) in the sample group must be in the same proportions as the population. |

What are the Three Types of Sampling? | Convenience, Random, Stratified. |

What is the Repeated Measures Design? | Each participant is a member of both the Experimental Group (E-Group) and Control Group (C-Group). |

What is the Matched Participants Design? | Variable (per strata) that might affect data in an experiment is considered and allocated to each group. |

What is the Independent Group Design? | Participants are allocated to the Experimental Group (E-Group) and Control Group (C-Group) randomly. |

What are the Three Types of Experimental Designs? | Repeated Measures, Matched Participants, Independent Groups. |

What are the Two Types of Data? | Qualitative and Quantitative. |

What is Qualitative Data? | Descriptions and characteristics. |

What is Quantitative Data? | Measurements and numerical values. |

What does it mean when data is Subjective? | Opinion based, no external values to measure against. |

What does it mean when data is Objective? | Measured against identifiable external criterion, often using standardized measures. |

What are the Scales of Measurement in order of increasing precision? | Nominal, Ordinal, Interval and Ratio. |

What is Nominal Data? | Nominal data is data for a property or name. |

What is Ordinal Data? | Ordinal data is data with a definite sequence, gap between levels is not constant. |

What is Interval Data? | Interval Data is data measured on a scale with each step on the scale being the same value. Zero does not mean the property doesn't exist. |

What is Ratio Data? | Can be used in powerful statistic tests. Zero means zero; the property does not exist at zero. |

What are the Three Types of Data Collection? | Observation, Interview, Questionnaires. |

What are the Two Types of Observation Data Collection? | Naturalistic and Controlled. |

What is Naturalistic Observation? | Voluntary behaviours in the subject's natural environment. |

What is Controlled Observation? | Voluntary behaviours in a controlled environment. |

What are the Two Types of Interview Data Collection? | Structured and Clinical. |

What is a Structured Interview? | An interview with fixed choices or responses. |

What is a Clinical Interview? | An interview where further questioning may be required for clarification of responses. |

What are the Two Types of Questionnaire Data Collection? | Surveys and Psychological Tests. |

What are Survey Questionnaires? | Q&A or rating (1-10, 5 Star) scales. |

What are Psychological Test Questionnaires? | Personality and multiple choice tests are examples. |

What is the Normal Curve? | When psychological data is obtained, it is hoped it will fit a normal or bell curve. This enables statistical analysis without manipulation of the data. |

What are the Three Measures of Central Tendency? | Mean, Median, Mode. |

What are the Four Measures of Variability? | Range, Variance, Standard Deviation, Skew. |

What is the P-Value? | If the data varies from the mean, tests are required to determine what the probability is that the difference is due to chance, expressed as a decimal. |

What is a Type I Error? | Incorrect rejection of the null hypothesis. |

What is a Type II Error? | Incorrect acceptance of the null hypothesis. |

What is Correlation? | Examines strength and relationship of variables to eachother. |

What is a Positive Correlation? | The two variables change in the same direction – as one increases, the other increases. |

What is a Negative Correlation? | The two variables change in opposite directions from each other – as one increases, the other decreases. |

What are the Two Types of Correlation Strength? | Weak and Strong. |

What is Standard Deviation? | A descriptive statistic and measure of variation, or variability, indicates how widely scores within a data set are distributed or spread around the central point (mean). |

How is Standard Deviation interpreted? | All score are the same = 0 SD. Low standard deviation indicates low variability (most are close to mean). High standard deviation indicates high variability (greater variation in scores). |