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Chapter 8

Transition Zone An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another.
Monsoon Seasonal reversal of wind+moisture flows in certain parts of the subtropics +lower-middle latitudes. Dry monsoon: the cool season when dry offshore winds prevail. Wet monsoon: the hot summer months-produce onshore winds-bring large amounts of rainfall.
Caste system The strict social stratification and residential segregation of people—specifically in India’s Hindu society—on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Indo-European languages The major world language family that dominates the European geographic realm. This language family is also the most widely dispersed globally, and about half of humankind speaks one of its languages.
Dravidian languages The language family, indigenous to the South Asian realm, that dominates southern India today; as opposed to the Indo-European languages, whose tongues dominate northern India.
Partition The subdivision of the British Indian Empire into India and Pakistan at the end of colonial rule on August 15, 1947.
Forward capital Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the area of contention.
Neoliberalism A national or regional development strategy based on the privatization of state-run companies, lowering of international trade tariffs, reduction of government subsidies, cutting of corporate taxes, and overall deregulation of business activity.
Megacity Informal term referring to the world’s most heavily populated cities; in this book, the term refers to a metropolis containing a population of greater than 10 million.
Extreme weather events Unprecedented, record-breaking departures from the longer-term weather patterns.In India, such events have tripled since 1980 in the form of severe heat waves, droughts, and non-monsoonal rainstorms that trigger massive flooding and widespread landslides.
Population geography The field of geography that focuses on the spatial aspects of demography and the influences of demographic change on particular countries and regions.
Population density The number of people per unit area. Also see arithmetic density and physiologic density measures.
Physiologic density The number of people per unit area of arable land.
Demographic burden Multi-stage model, based on w. Europe’s experience, changes in pop. growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization. High birth rates+ death rates, plunging death rates, = producing net pop. gain; birth+ death rates
Population pyramid Graphic representation of a national population according to age and gender. Such a diagram of age-sex structure typically displays the percentage of each age group as a horizontal bar, whose length represents its relationship to the total population .
Sex ratio A demographic indicator showing the ratio of males to females in a given population.
Buffer state A country/ set of countries separating ideological or political adversaries. In southern Asia, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Bhutan were parts of a buffer zone set up between British and Russian-Chinese imperial spheres.
Urban primacy Refers to a country’s largest city—ranking atop its urban hierarchy—most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not in every case) the capital city as well.
Taliban “seekers of religion“ —the Islamist militia group emerged from madrassas in Pakistan+ruled neighboring Afghanistan, trying to regain control in its continuing conflict with U.S.led NATO troops, one of the most virulent forms of militant Isla
al-Qaeda The terrorist organization that evolved into an expanding global network under the directorship of Usama bin Laden—coordinate the efforts of once Muslim revolutionary movements+a jihad aimed at what it perceived to be Islam’s enemies in the West.
China Pakistan Economic Corridor TNE-SW development axis stretching between the westernmost Chinese city of Kashgar+ Pakistan’s new Indian Ocean port of Gwadar. Major future trade route-aligns with China’s New Silk Road, bundled routeway of ultramodern rail, road+pipeline connections.
Drone warfare Remote-controlled unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as delivery systems to conduct military attacks. Highly precise targeting + advanced imaging capabilities that allow drones to often ‘see’ what is invisible to human pilots.
Communal tension Persistent stress among a country’s sociocultural groups that can often erupt into communal violence, particularly in India.
Hindutva “Hinduness” as expressed through Hindu nationalism, Hindu heritage, and/or Hindu patriotism—Fundamentalist movement that has been gaining strength since the late twentieth century that seeks to remake India as a society dominated by Hindu principles.
Informal sector Dominated by unlicensed sellers of homemade goods and services, the primitive form of capitalism found in many developing countries that takes place beyond the control of government. The complement to a country’s formal sector.
Double delta South Asia’s combined delta formed by the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. All of Bangladesh lies on this enormous deltaic plain, which also encompasses surrounding parts of eastern India.200 million people live here, attracted by the fertility of its soils
Non-governmental organization (NGO) A legitimate organization that operates independently from any form of government and does not function as a for-profit business. Mostly seeks to improve social conditions, but is not affiliated with political organizations.
Micro-credit Small loans extended to poverty-stricken borrowers who would not otherwise qualify for them. The aim is to help combat poverty, encourage entrepreneurship, and to empower poor communities—especially their women.
Rising sea level Major impacts of global climate change on the world ocean resulting from the large-scale melting of Arctic and Antarctic ice. Low-lying coastal settlements and human activities are at greatest risk of inundation.
Created by: fevonderheydt
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