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Psychology Chs 5,7,8

Define Sensation. components of an experience
Define Perception. interpretation
Define Cornea. a clear protective covering on the outer eye
The ___ focuses the ____ onto the ____ via accommodation. lens; light; retina
Light enters the eyes through what? the pupil
The ___contains receptors for ___ that send signals to the brain through the _____ _____. retina; light; optic nerve
Light strikes the retina, where light-sensitive cells react to light be creating what? neural impulses
What do rods detect? low light (peripheral vision)
What do cones detect? clarity and color in the center (fovea)
What chemically reacts to light? photopigments
What is Averted Vision? a technique for viewing faint objects which uses peripheral vision. It involves not looking directly at the object, but looking a little off to the side, while continuing to concentrate on the object
What are Feature Detectors (Simple Cells)? cells in visual cortex that respond to very specific visual stimuli (e.g., bars of light); discovered by accident by Humel and Wiesel
Different layers of visual cortex respond to more and more complex stimuli by getting information from a multitude of what cells? simple cells
What does FFA stand for? Fusiform Face Area
What are the 3 types of cones in the retina? blue-sensitive, red-sensitive, and green-sensitive
Certain kinds of color blindness result from having what? the wrong kind of photopigment in cones
What is the Bottom-Up Processing? controlled by physical messages delivered to the senses
What is the Top-Down Processing? controlled by one's beliefs or expectations of the world
What are Gestalt Psychologists? believe we're born with tendencies to organize visual information in some ways
What does Gestalt mean in German? configuration or pattern
What are the principles of organization? proximity, similarity, closure, continuation, common fate
Define the Law of Proximity. elements that are close together are grouped together
Define the Law of Similarity. items that share properties that are similar are grouped together
Define the Law of Closure. when a figure has a gap or a border is missing, we perceive it as a whole object
Define the Law of Continuation. when lines are broken, we still perceive a continuous line
Define the Law of Common Fate. elements that move together are grouped together
What is the Components Theory? states that objects are broken down into simple geometrical forms (geons) before identifying the whole objects
Define Monocular. require input from only one eye; linear perspective, overlap, haze, relative size, and shading
Define Retinal Disparity. difference between location of images in each retina
Define Convergence. how far the eyes turn inward to focus on an object
What is Sound? mechanical energy requiring a medium such as air or water to move; caused by vibrating stimulus;
What is the human range of hearing and speaking? 20hz-20khz
Define Frequency. how fast stimulus vibrates (pitch)
Define Amplitude. intensity of vibration; loudness; measured in decibels (dB)
What is the Pinna? funnel in which sound waves travel; focuses the waves
What is vibrated by the sound waves? the eardrum (tympanic membrane); moves bones in the middle ear
What are the 3 parts of the middle ear and what does it do? -Malleus (hammer) -Incus (anvil) -Stapes (stirrup) -intensifies vibration
How does the ear pick up sound? bones of the middle ear transmit vibrations into the inner ear through the oval window that causes fluid to move in the basilar membrane of the cochlea. This fluid moves hair cells of the cochlea, causing auditory receptor cells to fire
Different auditory nerves (stimulated by hair cells in the cochlea) correspond to different what? frequencies
What is the Place Theory? the location of receptor cells activated by movement of the basilar membrane underlines pitch perception
What are Cochlear Implants? devices that are surgically implanted to restore hearing in people with deafness caused by damage to the hair cells
What is the Frequency Theory? pitch perception is partly determine by the frequency of neural impulses
What is the role of Top-Down Processing? auditory information comes in as a stream; brain has to break it up to make sense of it; can recognize different speakers; can recognize the same speaker at different times of the day; prior knowledge influences how we perceive sound
What is Touch? when stimulated by pressure, receptor cells in the skin send messages to somatosensory cortex (parietal lobe)
What is Temperature? limited knowledge of how it is perceived; cold fibers; warm fibers
What is Pain? adaptive reaction by the body to stimuli intense enough to cause tissue damage
What is the Gate-Control Theory? impulses from pain receptors can be blocked ("gated") by the spinal cord; large fibers close the gate; small fibers open the gate; endorphins
What is Kinesthesia? the ability to sense the position and movement of one's body parts; receptors in muscles, joints, and skin; visual feedback
What is Vestibular Sense? the ability to sense changes in acceleration and posture; inner ear organs that contribute: semicircular canals, vestibular sacs
What are Chemical Senses? smell (olfaction) and taste (gustation); involve chemoreceptors
What is Smell? receptor cells in upper part of nasal cavity send messages to olfactory bulb
What is Taste? receptor cells on tongue (taste buds) respond to sweet, bitter, salty, sour tastes; distinct from experience of flavor; relayed to thalamus somatosensory cortex
What are Pheromones? chemicals that cause highly specific reactions when detected by other members of the species Ex: sexual behavior and aggression
Do humans react to pheromones, e.g., in perfume? none so far produce reliable reactions
Created by: ktarmogum
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