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Geography unit 1

13. Floods, earthquakes and volcanoes as hazards

Human beings live all over the world even in hazardous areas, since the positive aspects may outweigh the potential hazards.
Extreme events which occur in uninhabited areas of the world are not hazards.
the most common hazard experienced globally and throughout the Caribbean floods
the most sudden hazard in onset, striking with little warning Earthquakes
earthquakes may cause Tsunamis by undersea earthquakes and flood coastal areas
the most dramatic extreme natural event Volcanoes
Hazard risk arises from the intersection of 'natural events' and 'vulnerable population'
what influences the impacts of hazard risks -The magnitude, speed, extent and duration of the natural event -characteristics of the human environment -frequency of the event
how the magnitude of a hazard affects the risks the greater the size of the event; the greater the hazardous effects
how populations in LDCs respond to hazards Populations in LDCs are often unprepared and ill equipped to respond to hazard impacts. Many lives are lost and it is often difficult for communities to return to previous living standard
how populations in MDCs respond to hazards there are greater property losses than loss of life as higher levels of technology and resources allow more people to prepare, evacuate or recover from the effects of hazards
example of how a hazard in MDCs was different from in a LDC flooding of the Mississippi river in the USA has a different level of impact from flooding in the Ganges delta where the population is larger and more vulnerable
The magnitude of an event will influences the impacts of hazard risks directly influence its impact: the greater the size of the event, the greater the hazardous effects.
Generally people are better prepared for hazards if they have experienced an event. Planned land use zoning and evacuation may lessen the impact
speed of onset of floods moderate
speed of onset of earthquakes fast
speed of onset of volcanoes moderate
duration of floods Days/weeks
duration of earthquakes Seconds
during of volcanoes Days
areas of flood Widespread
areas of earthquakes Concentrated
areas of volcanoes Limited
Each natural hazard can have primary, secondary and tertiary effects depending on the characteristic of the population and the level of development
primary effects of hazards are those caused directly by the event - for example, flood waters may sweep away houses, or earthquakes may cause buildings to collapse.
secondary effects of hazards are those in the aftermath of the event, for example, famine, disease or fires after the event is over
tertiary effects of hazards are long term/permanent changes, for example, relocation of settlements
eg of a case study of flooding Guyana
Created by: 868TOYA
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