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Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Tsunami A seismic (earthquake-generated) sea wave that can attain gigantic proportions and cause coastal devastation. The tsunami of December 26, 2004, centered in the Indian Ocean near the Indonesian island of Sumatera (Sumatra) —
Tsunami Cont. — produced the first great natural disaster of the twenty-first century. Our new century’s second major tsunami disaster occurred along the coast of Japan’s northeastern Honshu Island on March 11, 2011.
South-to-North Water Division Project (SNWDP) The PRC’s inter-basin water transfer scheme (the world’s largest) to deliver massive quantities of fresh water from the Huang He and Chiang Jiang river systems to the burgeoning urban areas of northern China that face severe water shortages.
Dynasty A succession of Chinese rulers that came from the same line of male descent, sometimes enduring for centuries. Dynastic rule in China lasted for thousands of years, only coming to an end in 1911.
Sinicization Giving a Chinese cultural imprint; Chinese acculturation. See also Hanification.
Hanification Imparting a cultural imprint by the ethnic Chinese (the “people of Han”). Within China often refers to the steadily increasing migration of Han Chinese into the country’s periphery, especially Xinjiang and Xizang (Tibet). —
Hanification Cont. — Overseas Chinese imprints, more generally referred to as Sinicization, have been significant as well, most importantly in the Southeast Asian realm.
Asian Tiger The Four Asian Tigers are the economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong.
High-Value-Added Goods Products of improved net worth.
One-Child Policy Chinese population control policy initiated in the late 1970s that proscribed (and enforced) a limit of one child per family of most population groups (mainly urban, Han populations). —
One-Child Policy Cont. — This policy, ended in 2016, had become increasingly controversial over the past decade.
Gender Imbalance The demographic imbalance of males outnumbering females resulting from selective birth control. In China, this is an outcome of the One-Child Policy.
Dependency Ratio An indicator of the pressure on a country’s workers, the age-population ratio of (dependent) people who are not in the labor force to those (productive) people who are in the labor force.
Floating Population China’s huge mass of mobile workers who respond to shifting employment needs within the country. Most are temporary urban dwellers with restricted residency rights, whose movements are controlled by the hukou system.
Hukou System A longstanding Chinese system whereby all inhabitants must obtain and carry with them residency permits that indicate where an individual is from and where they may exercise particular rights such as education, health care, housing, and the like.
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Manufacturing and export center in China, created since 1980 to attract foreign investment and technology transfers. Seven SEZs—all located on China’s Pacific coast—
Special Economic Zones (SEZ) Cont. — currently operate: Shenzhen, adjacent to Hong Kong; Zhuhai; Shantou; Xiamen; Hainan Island, in the far south; Pudong, across the river from Shanghai; and Binhai New Area, next to the port of Tianjin.
Overseas Chinese The more than 50 million ethnic Chinese who live outside China. About two-thirds live in Southeast Asia, and many have become quite successful. A large number maintain links to China —
Overseas Chinese Cont. — and as investors played a major economic role in stimulating the growth of SEZs and Open Cities in China’s Pacific Rim.
Economic Geography The field of geography that focuses on the diverse ways in which people earn a living and on how the goods and services they produce are expressed and organized spatially.
Foreign Direct Investment A key indicator of the success of an emerging market economy, whose growth is accelerated by the infusion of foreign funds to supplement domestic sources of investment capital.
Urban System A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
New Silk Road China’s ongoing ambitious project to forge an overland routeway of high-speed railroads to link East Asia to Europe via Central Asia. This new “Eurasian land bridge”, —
New Silk Road Cont. — follows the general alignment of the fabled ancient Silk Road traversed by Marco Polo from the Mediterranean Basin to medieval China.
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor The 2000-kilometer (1250-mi), northeast-southwest development axis stretching between the westernmost Chinese city of Kashgar and Pakistan’s new Indian Ocean port of Gwadar. —
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Cont. — A major future trade route that aligns with China’s New Silk Road, its centerpiece is a bundled routeway of ultramodern rail, road, and pipeline connections expected to spawn various development nodes within the corridor, mostly in Pakistan.
Buffer State A country or set of countries separating ideological or political adversaries. In southern Asia, Afghanistan, Nepal, and Bhutan were parts of a buffer zone set up between British and Russian-Chinese imperial spheres. —
Buffer State Cont. — Thailand was a buffer state between British and French colonial domains in mainland Southeast Asia.
Nightlight Map Map that displays the nighttime distribution of artificial lighting in a given area, a good surrogate for the area’s level of development.
Regional Complementarity Exists when a pair of regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
State Capitalism Government-controlled corporations competing under free-market conditions, usually in a tightly regimented society.
Conurbation General term used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas.
Demographic Burden The proportion of a national population that is either too old or too young to be productive and that must be cared for by the productive population.
Technopole A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California’s Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy.
One Nation—Two Systems The arrangement under which capitalist Hong Kong functions within the PRC’s communist economic system. Widely seen as a model for the future reunification of Taiwan with mainland China.
Created by: shia !
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