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Chapter 9

TermDefinition
Tsunami A seismic (earthquake-generated) sea wave that can attain gigantic proportions and cause coastal devastation.
South-to-North Water Diversion Project The PRC’s inter-basin water transfer scheme (the world’s largest) to deliver massive quantities of fresh water from the Huang He and Chiang Jiang river systems to the burgeoning urban areas of northern China that face severe water shortages.
Dynasty A succession of Chinese rulers that came from the same line of male descent, sometimes enduring for centuries. Dynastic rule in China lasted for thousands of years, only coming to an end in 1911.
Sincization Giving a Chinese cultural imprint; Chinese acculturation
Hanification cultural imprint by ethnic Chinese (the “people of Han”). Within China often increasing migration of Han Chinese, especially Xinjiang and Xizang (Tibet). Overseas imprints, referred to as Sinicization, most importantly in the Southeast Asian realm.
Asian Tiger The Four Asian Tigers are the economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong
High-value-added goods Products of improved net worth.
One-Child Policy Chinese population control policy initiated in the late 1970s enforced a limit of one child per family of most population groups (mainly urban, Han populations). This policy, ended in 2016, had become increasingly controversial over the past decade.
Gender Imbalance The demographic imbalance of males outnumbering females resulting from selective birth control. In China, this is an outcome of the One-Child Policy.
Dependency ratio An indicator of the pressure on a country’s workers, the age-population ratio of (dependent) people who are not in the labor force to those (productive) people who are in the labor force.
Floating population China’s huge mass of mobile workers who respond to shifting employment needs within the country. Most are temporary urban dwellers with restricted residency rights, whose movements are controlled by the hukou system.
Hukou system A longstanding Chinese system whereby all inhabitants must obtain and carry with them residency permits that indicate where an individual is from and where they may exercise particular rights such as education, health care, housing, and the like.
Special Economic Zone (SEZ) Manufacturing and export center in China, created since 1980 to attract foreign investment and technology transfers. \ Shenzhen,Hong Kong; Zhuhai; Shantou; Xiamen; Hainan Island;Pudong, Shanghai; and Binhai New Area, next to the port of Tianjin.
Overseas Chinese more than 50 mil ethnic Chinese who live outside China. About 2/3 live in Southeast Asia. A large number maintain links to China and as investors played a major economic role in stimulating the growth of SEZs and Open Cities in China’s Pacific Rim.
Economic geography The field of geography that focuses on the diverse ways in which people earn a living and on how the goods and services they produce are expressed and organized spatially.
Foreign direct investment A key indicator of the success of an emerging market economy, whose growth is accelerated by the infusion of foreign funds to supplement domestic sources of investment capital.
Urban system A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
New Silk Road China project to forge an overland routeway of railroads to link East Asia to Europe - Central Asia. This new “Eurasian land bridge”,follows alignment of the fabled ancient Silk Road traversed by Marco Polo from the Mediterranean Basin to medieval China.
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor 1250 mil northeast-southwest development axis stretching between Kashgar -port of Gwadar,aligns with China’s New Silk Road, its centerpiece is routeway of ultramodern rail, road, and pipeline connections expected to development nodes with Pakistan
Buffer state country or countries separating ideological or political adversaries.
Nightlight map Map that displays the nighttime distribution of artificial lighting in a given area, a good surrogate for the area’s level of development
Regional complementarity Exists when a pair of regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
state capitalism Government-controlled corporations competing under free-market conditions, usually in a tightly regimented society.
Conurbation General term used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas.
Demographic burden The proportion of a national population that is either too old or too young to be productive and that must be cared for by the productive population.
Technopole A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California’s Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy.
One Nation - Two System The arrangement under which capitalist Hong Kong functions within the PRC’s communist economic system. Widely seen as a model for the future reunification of Taiwan with mainland China.
Created by: Miranda_Tant
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