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PGS341 Ch.3 Vocab

Reflexes Unlearned responses triggered by specific stimulation
Alert inactivity State in which a baby is calm with eyes open and attentive; the baby seems to be deliberately inspecting the environment
Waking activity State in which a baby's eyes are open but seem unfocused while the arms or legs move in bursts of uncoordinated motion
Crying Sate in which a baby cries vigorously, usually accompanied by agitated but uncoordinated movement
Sleeping State in which a baby alternates from being still and breathing regularly to moving gently and breathing irregularly; the eyes are closed throughout
Basic cry cry that starts softly and gradually becomes more intense; often heard when babies are hungry or tired
Mad cry More intense version of a basic cry
Pain cry Cry that begins with a sudden long burst, followed by a long pause and gasping
Irregular or rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep Irregular sleep in which an infant's eyes dart rapidly beneath the eyelids while the body is quite active
Regular (nonREM) sleep Sleep in which heart rate, breathing, and brain activity are steady
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDs) When a healthy baby dies suddenly for no apparent reason
Temperament Consistent style or pattern of behavior
Malnourished Being small for one's age because of inadequate nutrition
Neuron Basic cellular unit of the brain and nervous system that specializes in receiving and transmitting information
Cell body Center of the neuron that keeps the neuron alive
Dendrite End of the neuron that receives information; it looks like a tree with many branches
Axon Tubelike structure that emerges from the cell body and transmits information to other neurons
Terminal buttons Small knobs at the end of the axon that release neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters Chemicals released by the terminal buttons that allow neurons to communicate with each other
Cerebral cortex Wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human
Hemispheres Right & left halves of the cortex
Corpus callosum Thick bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres
Frontal cortex Brian region that regulate s personality and goal-directed behavior
Neural plate Flat group of cells present in prenatal development that becomes the brain and spinal cord
Myelin Fatty sheath that wraps around neurons and enables them to transmit information more rapidly
Synaptic pruning Gradual reduction in the number of synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing until early adolescence
Electroencephalogram (EEG) Pattern of brain waves recorded from electrodes that are placed on the scalp
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Method of studying brain activity by using magnetic fields to track blood flow in the brain
Neuroplasticity Extent to which brain organization is flexible
*Experience-expectant growth Process by which the wiring of the brain is organized by experiences that are common to most humans
*Experience-dependent growth Process by which an individual's unique experiences over a lifetime affect brain structures & organization
Motor skills Coordinated movements of the muscles & limbs
Locomote Ability to move around in the world
Fine motor skills Motor skills associated with grasping, holding, & manipulating objects
Toddling Early, unsteady form of walking done by infants
Toddlers Young children who have just learned to walk
Dynamic systems theory Theory that views motor development as involving many distinct skills that are organized and reorganized over time to meet specific needs
Differentiation Distinguishing and mastering individual motions
Integration Linking individual motions into a coherent, coordinated whole
Perception Process by which the brain receives, selects, modifies, and organizes incoming nerve imulses that are the result of physical stimulation
Visual acuity Smallest pattern that one can distinguish reliably
Cones Specialized neurons in the back of the eye that sense color
Visual cliff Glass-covered platform that appears to have a “shallow” and “deep” side; used to study infant's depth perception
Kinetic cues Cues to depth perception in which motion is used to estimate depth
Visual expansion Kinetic cue to depth perception that is based on the fact that an object fills an ever-greater proportion of the retina as it moves closer
Motion parallax Kinetic cue to depth perception based on the fact that nearby moving objects move across our visual field faster than do distant objects
Retinal disparity Way of inferring depth based on differences in the retinal images in the left and right eyes
Pictorial cues Cues to depth perception that are used to convey depths in drawings and paintings
Linear perspective A cue to depth perception based on the fact that parallel lines come together at a single point in the distance
Texture gradient Perceptual cue to depth based on the fact that the texture of objects changes from coarse and distinct for nearby objects to finer and less distinct for distant objects
Intersensory redundancy Infants' sensory systems are attuned to information presented simultaneously to different sensory modes
Theory of mind Ideas about connections between thoughts, beliefs, intentions, and behavior that create an intuitive understanding of the link between mind and behavior
Created by: 817229501