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PGS341 Ch.1 Vocab

Human Development The multidisciplinary study of how people change and how they remain the same over time
Nature-nurture issue The degree to which genetic or hereditary influences and experiential or environmental influences determine the kind of person you are
Continuity-discontinuity issue Whether a particular developmental phenomenon represents a smooth progression throughout the life span or a series of abrupt shifts
Universal versus context-specific development issue Whether there is just one path of development or several paths
Biological forces Include all genetic and health-related factors that affect development
Psychological forces Include all internal perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that affect development
Sociocultural forces Include all interpersonal, societal, cultural, and ethnic factors athat affect development
Life-cycle forces Reflect differences in how the same event affects people of different ages
Biopsychosocial framework A useful way to organize the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces on human development
Theory An organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
Psychodynamic theories Theories proposing that development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages
Psychosocial theory Erikson's proposal that personality development is determined by the interaction of an internal maturational plan and external societal demands
Epigenetic principle In Erikson's theory, the idea that each psychosocial strength has its own special period of particular importance
Operant conditioning Learning paradigm in which the consequences of a behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated in the future
Reinforcement A consequence that increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
Punishment A consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows
Imitation or Observational Learning Learning that occurs by simply watching how others behave
Self-efficacy People's beliefs about their own abilities and talents
Information-processing theory Theory proposing that human cognition consists of mental hardware and mental software
Ecological theory Theory based on idea that human development is inseparable from the environmental context in which a person develops
Microsystem The people and objects in an individual's immediate environment (ex: Parents & Child)
Mesosystem Provides connections across microsystems (ex: School & friends)
Exosystem Social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development (ex: Parent's places of employment, parents' social network, government & social policy)
Macrosystem The cultures and subcultures in which the microsystem, mesosystem, and exosystem are embedded (historical events, culture, ethnic group)
Life-span perspective View that human development is multiply determined and cannot be understood within the scope of a single framework
Selective optimization with compensation (SOC) model Model in which three processes (selection, optimization, and compensation) form a system of behavioral action that generates and regulates development and aging
Life-course perspective Description of how various generations experience the biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective historical contexts
Systematic observation Watching people and carefully recording what they do or say
Naturalistic observation Technique in which people are observed as they behave spontaneously in some real-life situation
Structured observations Technique in which a researcher creates a setting that is likely to elicit the behavior of interest
Self-reports People's answers to questions about the topic of interest
Reliability Extent to which a measure provides a consistent index of a characteristic
Validity Extent to which a measure actually assesses what researchers think it does
Populations Broad groups of people that are of interest to researchers
Sample A subset of the population
Correlational study Investigation looking at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
Correlation coefficient An expression of the strength and direction of a relation between two variables
Experiment A systematic way of manipulating the key factor(s) that the investigator thinks causes a particular behavior
Independent variable The factor being manipulated
Dependent variable The behavior being observed
Qualitative research Method that involves gaining in-depth understanding of human behavior and what governs it
Longitudinal study Research design in which the same individuals are observed or tested repeatedly at different points in their lives
Microgenetic study A special type of longitudinal study design in which participants are tested repeatedly over a span of days or weeks, typically with the aim of observing change directly as it occurs
Cross-sectional study Study in which developmental differences are identified by testing people of different ages
Cohort effects Problems with cross-sectional designs in which differences between age groups (cohorts) may result as easily from environmental events as from developmental processes
Sequential design Developmental research design based on cross-sectional and longitudinal designs
Meta-analysis A tool that enables researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
Stem cells Unspecialized human or animal cells that can produce mature specialized body cells and at the same time replicate themselves
Created by: 817229501
Popular Psychology sets




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