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PGS341 Ch.2 Vocab

Chromosomes Threadlike structures in the nuclei of the cells that contain genetic material
Autosomes First 22 pairs of chromosomes
Sex chromosomes 23rd pair of Chromosomes; these determine the sex of the child
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule composed of four nucleotide bases that is the biochemical basis of heredity
Gene Group of nucleotide bases that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions
Genotype Person's hereditary makeup
Phenotype Physical, behavioral, and psychological features that result from the interaction between one's genes and the environment
Alleles Variations of genes
Homozygous When the alleles in a pair of chromosomes are the same
Heterozygous When the alleles in a pair of chromosomes differ from each other
Dominant Form of an allele whose chemical instructions are followed
Recessive Allele whose instructions are ignored in the presence of a dominant allele
Incomplete dominance Situation in which one allele does not dominate another completely
Sickle-cell trait Disorder in which individuals show signs of mild anemia only when they are seriously deprived of oxygen; occurs in individuals who have one dominant allele for normal blood cells and one recessive sickle-cell allele
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Inherited disorder in which the infant lacks a liver enzyme
Huntington's disease Progressive and fatal type of dementia caused by dominant alleles
Behavioral genetics The branch of genetics that studies the inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits
Polygenetic inheritance When phenotypes are the result of the combined activity of many separate genes
Monozygotic twins The result of a single fertilized egg splitting to form two new individuals; also called identical twins
Dizygotic twins The result of two separate eggs fertilized by two sperm; also called fraternal twins
Reaction range A genotype is manifested in reaction to the environment where development takes place, so a single genotype can lead to a new range of phenotypes
Heritability coefficient A measure (derived from a correlation coefficient) of the extent to which a trait or characteristic is inherited
Niche-picking Process of deliberately seeking environments that are compatible with one's genetic makeup
Nonshared environmental influences Forces within a family that make siblings different from one another
Prenatal development The many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human
In vitro fertilization Process by which sperm and an egg are mixed in a petri dish to create a zygote, which is then placed in a woman's uterus
Eugenics Effort to improve the human species by letting only people whose characteristics are valued by a society mate and pass along their genes
Zygote Fertilized egg
Implanatation Step in which the zygote burrows into the uterine wall and establishes connections with a woman's blood vessels
Germ disc Small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that will eventually develop into a baby
Placenta Structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the developing child
Embryo Term given to the zygote once it is completely embedded in the uterine wall
Ectoderm Outer layer of the embryo, which will become the hair, the outer layer of skin, and th enervous system
Mesoderm Middle layer of the embryo, whoch becomes the muscles, bones, and circulatory system
Endoderm Inner layer of the embryo, which becomes the lungs and the digestive system
Amnion Inner sac in which the developing child rests
Amniotic fluid Fluid that surrounds the fetus
Umbilical cord Structure containing veins and arteries that connects the developing child to the placenta
Cephalocaudal principle A principal of physical growth that states that structures nearest the head develop first
Proximodistal principle Principle of physical growth that states that structures nearest the center of the body develop first
Period of the fetus Longest period of prenatal development, extending from the 9th until th e38th week after conception
Cerebral cortex Wrinkled surface of the brain that regulates many functions that are distinctly human
Vernix Substance that protects the fetus's skin during development
Age of viability Age at which a fetus can survive because most of its bodily systems function adequately; typically at 7 months after conception
Spina bifida Disorder in which the embryo's neural tube does not close properly
Stress Physical and psychological responses to threatening or challenging conditions
Teratogen An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
Fetal alcohol syndrome Disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant
Ultrasound Prenatal diagnostic technique that uses sound waves to generate an image of the fetus
Amniocentesis Prenatal diagnostic technique that uses a syringe to withdraw a sample of amniotic fluid through the mother's abdomen
Chorionic villus sampling Prenatal diagnostic technique that involves taking a sample of tissue from the chorion
Fetal medicine Field of medicine concerned with treating prenatal problems before birth
Crowning Appearance of the top of the baby's head during labor
Doula Person familiar with childbirth who provides emotional and physical support throughout labor and delivery
Hypoxia A birth complication in which umbilical blood flow is disrupted and the infant does not receive adequate oxygen
Cesarean section (C-section) Surgical removal of the infant from the uterus through an incision made in the mother's abdomen
Preterm (premature) Babies born before the 36th week after conception
Low birth weight Newborns who weigh less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds)
Very low birth weight Newborns who weigh less than 1,500 grams (3 pounds
Extremely low birth weight Newborns who weigh less than 1,000 grams (2 pounds)
Infant mortality The number of infants out of 1,000 births who die before their first birthday
Created by: 817229501