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Europe and Russia

QuestionAnswer
Land Hemisphere
The half of the globe containing the greatest amount of land surface, centered on western Europe.
City-state An independent political entity consisting of a single city with (and sometimes without) an immediate hinterland.
Local functional Specialization When particular people in particular places concentrate on the production of particular goods and services. This is very prominent in Europe.
Industrial Revolution The social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and especially manufacturing and urbanization that resulted from technological innovations and greater specialization in late-eighteenth-century Europe.
Complementarity Exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
Transferability Capacity to move a good from one place to another at a bearable cost.
Centrifugal forces Forces that tend to divide a country—such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
Centripetal forces Forces that unite and bind a country together—such as a strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.
Supranationalism A venture involving three or more states—political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
Four Motors of Europe Rhône-Alpes (France), Baden-Württemberg (Germany), Catalonia (Spain), and Lombardy (Italy). Each is a high-technology-driven region marked by exceptional industrial vitality and economic success not only within Europe but on the global scene as well.
Devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government. A devolutionary pressure in Europe is the Russian sphere with many new states bordering Ukraine.
Microstate A sovereign state that contains a minuscule land area and population. An example of this is the micro-state of Liechtenstein.
Site The internal locational attributes of an urban center, including its local spatial organization and physical setting.
Situation The external locational attributes of an urban center; its relative location or regional position with reference to other non-local places.
Conurbation Used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas. An example of this is the conurbation Randstad in The Netherlands.
Shatterbelt Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals. Eastern Europe is an example.
Entrepôt A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break-of-bulk—the collection, storage, and transshipment of large quantity goods—point. An example of this is the port of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Exclave A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state. An example of this is Russia’s Kaliningrad.
Continentiality The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the world’s landmasses.
Forward capital Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border. A former example of this was St. Petersburg, Russia, positioned along the border of Finland.
Command economy The tight economic system of the former Soviet Union, where central planners in Moscow assigned the production of particular goods to particular places, often guided more by socialist ideology than the principles of economic geography.
Satellite state The countries of eastern Europe under Soviet hegemony between 1945 and 1989 captured by Moscow.
Distance decay The various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures and interactions.
Unitary state A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
Federal system A country adhering to a political framework wherein a central government represents the various subnational entities within a nation-state where they have common interests and can be independent and.
Double complementarity Term used when two areas each require the other’s products
Created by: pl247921
 

 



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