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Key Terms EU RUS

Definition of terms in the chapter regarding Europe and Russia. Made by Carlos J

TermDefinition
Land Hemisphere The half of the globe containing the greatest amount of land surface centered on western Europe.
City-state An independent political entity consisting of a single city with or without an immediate hinterland.
Local functional Specialization A hallmark of Europe’s economic geography that later spread to many other parts of the world, whereby particular people in particular places concentrate on the production of particular goods and services.
Industrial Revolution The term applied to the social and economic changes in the agriculture, commerce, and especially manufacturing and urbanization that resulted from technological innovations and greater specialization in late-eighteenth-century Europe.
Complementarity Exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
Transferability The capacity to move a good from one place to another at a bearable cost; the ease with which a commodity may be transported.
Centrifugal forces A term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
Centripetal forces Forces that unite and bind a country together such as a strong national culture, shared objectives, and a common faith.
Supranationalism A venture involving three or more states political, economic, and or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
Four Motors of Europe Rhone-Alpes (France), Baden-Wurttemberg (Germany), Catalonia (Spain__, and Lombardy (Italy). Each is a high-technology-driven region marked by exceptional industrial vitality and economic success not only within Europe but on the global scene as well.
Devolution (include examples) The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government. Catalonia is an example.
Microstate (examples) A sovereign state that contain a minuscule land area and population. They do not have the attributes of ‘complete’ states, but are on the map as tiny yet independent entities nonetheless. Examples include Vatican City, Malta, and Monaco.
Site and situation Site is the internal locational attributes of an urban center, including its local spatial organization and physical setting. Situation is the external locational attributes of an urban center; its relative location.
Conurbation (include example) General term used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas. Rangstad or Rin City in the Netherlands is an example.
Shatterbelt (where in Europe) Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals. Eastern Europe is a classic example.
Entrepot (example in this realm) Break of Bulk (function) A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break-of-bulk point or a location that transfers goods from one carrier to another. Copenhagen.
Exclave (with example) A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separate from it by the territory of another state. Kalilingrad.
Continentality The variation of the continental effect of air temps in the interior parts of the world’s landmasses. The greater the distance from the moderating influence of an ocean, the greater the extreme in summer and winter temperatures. Interior tend to be dry.
Forward capital (example) Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the area of contention. St. Petersburg.
Command economy The tightly controlled economic system of the former Soviet Union, whereby central planners in Moscow assigned the production of particular goods to particular places, often guided more by socialist ideology than the principles of economic geography.
Satellite state The countries of eastern Europe under Soviet hegemony between 1945 and 1989. These countries were captured by the Moscow satellite while in orbit.
Distance decay The various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures and interactions.
Unitary state A nation-state that has a centralized govt and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
Federal system A nation-state that has shared power between the centralized government and parts of the state.
Double complementarity When two countries require the others products.
Created by: CJ421
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