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Chap. 5 Geo Vocab

J

TermDefinition
Mono centric geographic realm A world geographic realm dominated by a single country
Exclave A bounded piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state
Irredentism A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its national living in a neighboring state
Geopolitics Political relations among states or regions that are strongly influenced by their geographical setting, including proximity, accessibility, sovereign boundaries, natural resources, population distribution, and the like.
Continentality The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the worlds land masses
Permafrost Permanently frozen water in the near surface soil and bedrock of cold environments, producing the effect of completely frozen ground
Tundra The treeless plain that lies along the arctic shore and northernmost Russia and Canada
Taiga The sub arctic, mostly coniferous snow forest that blankets northern Russia and Canada south of the tundra that lines the arctic shore
Northern passage The high altitude sea route of the arctic ocean that follows the entire north coast of Eurasia from northern Norway in the west to the Northeastern most corner of Russia where it meets the Bering Strait
Forward capital Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border
Federation A country adhering to a political framework wherein a central government represents the various subnational entities within a nation state where they have common interests
Russification Demographic resettlement policies pursued by the central planners of the Soviet empire, whereby ethnic Russians were encouraged to emigrate from the Russian republic to the 14 non-Russian republics of the USSR
Command economy The tightly controlled economic system of the former Soviet union, whereby central planners in Moscow assigned the production of particular goods to particular places
Satellite state The countries of Eastern Europe under Soviet hegemony between 1945 and 1989
Near abroad The 14 former Soviet republics that, in combination with the dominant Russian republic, constituted the USSR
NATO Established in 1950 at the height of the cold war as a US-led supranational defense pacts to shield postwar Europe against the Soviet military threat
Distance decay The various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures and interactions
Unitary State System A nation state that has a centralized government and administration that exercise is power equally over all parts of the state
Population implosion The opposite of population explosion; refers to the declining population of many European countries and Russia in which the death rate exceeds the birth rate and immigration rate
BRICs Acronym for the four biggest emerging national markets in the world today: Brazil Russia India and China
Centrality The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities
Shi’ite Islam The smaller of the two main Islamic sects, comprising about 10 percent of Muslims overall, but in the majority in both I ran and Iraq
Sunni Islam The larger of Islam’s two main sects who adhere to the conviction that any devout follower of the Prophet Muhammad is éligible to be his legitimate successor
New Silk Road China’s ongoing ambitious project to forge and overland route way of high speed rail roads to link east Asia to Europe via Central Asia
Eurasien Customs Union A supranational organization created by Russia in 2010 to maintain economic ties with the friendliest countries in the Near Abroad
Geopolitical revanchism Retaliatory politics pursued by a state aimed at recovering lost territory
Created by: Pl240781
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