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Chapter 5

Monocentric geographic realm A world geographic realm dominated— territorially and/or demographically—by a single country. Russia in Russia/Central Asia is a prime example; others are the United States (North America), India (South Asia), and China (East Asia).
Exclave A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.
Irredentism A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in a neighboring state.
Geopolitics Political relations among states or regions that are strongly influenced by their geographical setting, including proximity, accessibility, sovereign boundaries, natural resources, population distribution, and the like.
Continentality Variation in cont. effect on air temp. in interior portions of the world’s landmasses. Greater the distance from the influence of an ocean, greater the extreme in summer/winter temp. Cont. int.tend to be dry when dis. from oceanic moist. Sourc. Extend
Permafrost Permanently frozen water in the near-surface soil and bedrock of cold environments, producing the effect of completely frozen ground. Surface can thaw during brief warm season.
Tundra Permanently frozen water in the near-surface soil and bedrock of cold environments, producing the effect of completely frozen ground. Surface can thaw during brief warm season.
Taiga The subarctic, mostly coniferous snowforest that blankets northern Russia and Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore. Known as the boreal forest in North America.
Northeast Passage High-latitude sea route of the AO follows the entire n. coast of EUA from n. NO in the w. to the NEmost corner of Russia,it meetsBering Strait. Increased seasonal melting of the Arctic ice cap in recent years opened waterway-summer route for ship EU+e.A
Forward Capital Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the area of contention.
Federation Country adhering to framework a central gov. represents subnational entities in a nation-state, have common interests (defense, foreign affairs...allows these various entities to retain own identities/their own laws, policies, customs in certain spheres
Russification Demographic resettlement policies pursued by the central planners of the Soviet Empire (1922–1991), whereby ethnic Russians were encouraged to emigrate from the Russian Republic to the 14 non-Russian republics of the USSR.
Command Economy The tightly controlled economic system of the former Soviet Union, whereby central planners in Moscow assigned the production of particular goods to particular places, often guided more by socialist ideology than the principles of economic geography.
Satellite State The countries of eastern Europe under Soviet hegemony between 1945-1989. This tier of countries—the “satellites” captured in Moscow’s “orbit” following World War II—was bordered on the w. by the Iron Curtain, on the e. by the USSR-bg ,CZ, de, hu, PL, Rou
Near Abroad The near abroad refers to the 14 newly independent republics which emerged after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
NATO NATO stands for North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It was established in 1950 at the height of the Cold War as U.S. -led supranational defense pact to shield and to provide collective security against the threat posed by the Soviet Union.
Distance decay The various degenerative effects of distance on human spatial structures and interactions.
Unitary state A nation-state that has a centralized government and administration that exercises power equally over all parts of the state.
Population implosion The opposite of population explosion; refers to the declining populations of many European countries and Russia in which the death rate exceeds the birth rate and immigration rate.
BRICs Acronym for the four biggest emerging national markets in the world today—Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
Centrality The strength of an urban center in its capacity to attract producers and consumers to its facilities; a city’s “reach” into the surrounding region.
Shi’ite Islam Smaller of the 2 main Islamic sects, 10% of Muslims overall- in the majority in both Iran/Iraq. Origin of Shi’ism dates back to the death of the Proph.Muhammad, whose adherents believe that only a blood relative of his considered his legitimate successor
Sunni Islam The larger of Islam’s two main sects (encompassing) roughly 90 percent of all Muslims) who adhere to the conviction that any devout follower of the Prophet Muhammad is eligible to be his legitimate successor.
New Silk Road China’s ongoing ambitious project: overland routeway of high-speed railroads to link E. Asia to EU via C. Asia. This new “Eurasian land bridge”, follows general alignment of ancient Silk Road traversed by Marco Polo from the MED Basin to medieval China.
Eurasian Customs Union A supranational organization created by Russia in 2010 to maintain economic ties with the friendliest countries in the Near Abroad. The three charter members (Russia, Belarus, and Kazakhstan) were joined in 2015 by the two smaller countries of ARM and KGZ
Geopolitical revanchism Retaliatory policies pursued by a state aimed at recovering lost territory. Russia’s forcible annexation of the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine in 2014 is a good example
Created by: fevonderheydt
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