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The European Realm
|An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another.
|Geographic information system (GIS)
|A form of spatial analysis that integrates computer hardware, mapping software, and such specialized tools as models and algorithms. A versatile technique that is constantly being expanded in its applications
|Digital elevation model
|A representation of a unit of terrain obtained from remote sensing imagery.
|The half of the globe containing the greatest amount of land surface, centered on western Europe.
|An independent political entity consisting of a single city with (and sometimes without) an immediate hinterland.
|Local functional specialization
|A hallmark of Europe’s economic geography that later spread to many other parts of the world, whereby particular people in particular places concentrate on the production of particular goods and services.
|The term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture, commerce, and especially manufacturing and urbanization that resulted from technological innovations and greater specialization in late-eighteenth-century Europe.
|Controlling power and influence over a territory, especially by the government of an autonomous state over the people it rules.
|A country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. The ideal form to which most nations and states aspire—a political unit wherein the territorial state coincides with the area settled by a certain national group.
|Legally a term encompassing all the citizens of a state, it also has other connotations. Most definitions now tend to refer to a group of tightly knit people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion, and other shared cultural attributes.
|Indo-European language family
|The major world language family that dominates the European geographic realm. This language family is also the most widely dispersed globally (Fig. G-8), and about half of humankind speaks one of its languages.
|Exists when two regions, through an exchange of raw materials and/or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
|The capacity to move a good from one place to another at a bearable cost; the ease with which a commodity may be transported.
|Central business district (CBD)
|The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
|A term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country—such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences.
|Forces that unite and bind a country together—such as a strong national culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith.
|A venture involving three or more states—political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
|The 19 countries (as of mid-2016) whose official currency is the euro.
|A bounded (non-island) piece of territory that is part of a particular state but lies separated from it by the territory of another state.
|Four Motors of Europe
|Rhône-Alpes (France), Baden-Württemberg (Germany), Catalonia (Spain), and Lombardy (Italy). Each is a high-technology-driven region marked by exceptional industrial vitality and economic success not only within Europe but on the global scene as well.
|The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.
|Legally protected residency status; usually granted by a host country to immigrants fleeing political oppression in their former homeland.
|A sovereign state that contains a minuscule land area and population. They do not have the attributes of “complete” states, but are on the map as tiny yet independent entities nonetheless.
|A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
|A country’s largest city—ranking atop its urban hierarchy—most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not in every case) the capital city as well.
|The internal locational attributes of an urban center, including its local spatial organization and physical setting.
|The external locational attributes of an urban center; its relative location or regional position with reference to other non-local places.
|The widening mouth of a river as it reaches the sea; land subsidence or a rise in sea level has overcome the tendency to form a delta.
|General term used to identify a large multimetropolitan complex formed by the coalescence of two or more major urban areas.
|An interior state wholly surrounded by land.
|A large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system. Leading world-cities include London, New York, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, and Paris.
|Urban agglomeration consisting of a (central) city and its suburban ring. See also urban (metropolitan) area.
|A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller river boats for inland distribution. An entrepôt.
|A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break-of-bulk point.
|Region caught between stronger, colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals. Eastern Europe is a classic example.
|The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political units. Named after the historically contentious Balkan Peninsula of southeastern Europe.
|A policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a state aimed at a community of its nationals living in a neighboring state.
|Schengen Area (part 1)
|The territory constituted by most of Europe’s countries within which people are free to cross international boundaries without formal border checks. Certain EU members do not fully participate: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, and Romania.
|Schengen Area (part 2)
|Four non-EU countries do participate: Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and the microstate of Liechtenstein. Another non-participant is the United Kingdom, which voted to leave the EU in 2016.