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COS CH12

TermDefinition
Acidic solution A solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral).
Alkaline solution A solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral)
Alkalis Also known as bases; compounds that react with acids to form salts.
Alkanolamines Alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.
Alpha hydroxyl acids Abbreviated AHAs; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) that are often used to exfoliate the skin.
Ammonia Colorless gas with a pungent odor that is comprised of hydrogen and nitrogen.
Anion An ion with a negative electrical charge.
Atoms The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element; structures that make up the element and have the same properties of the element.
Cation An ion with a positive electrical charge.
Chemical change A change in the chemical composition or make-up of a substance.
Chemical properties Characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance.
Chemistry Science that deals with the composition
Combustion Rapid oxidation of a substance
Compound molecules Also known as compounds; a chemical combination of two or more atoms or different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
Element The simplest form of chemical matter; an element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.
Elemental molecule Molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions.
Emulsifier An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
Exothermic reactions Chemical reactions that release a significant amount of heat.
Glycerin Sweet
Immiscible Liquids that are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.
Inorganic chemistry The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon
Ion An atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge.
Ionization The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions
Lipophilic Having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).
Logarithm Multiples of ten.
Matter any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight)
Miscible Liquids that are mutually soluble
Molecule A chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions.
Oil-in-water emulsion Abbreviated O/W emulsion; oil droplets emulsified in water.
Organic chemistry The study of substances that contain the element carbon.
Oxidation A chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
Oxidation-reduction Also known as redox; a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen).
Oxidizing agent Substance that releases oxygen.
PH The abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. PH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions.
PH scale A measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance; the pH scale has a range of 0-14
Physical change A change in the form or physical properties of a substance
Physical change A change in the form or physical properties of a substance
Physical mixture A physical combination of matter in any proportions.
Physical properties Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the substance.
Pure substance A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions.
Reducing agent A substance that adds hydrogen to a chemical compound or subtracts oxygen from the compound.
Silicones Special type or used in hair conditioners
Solute The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
Solution A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.
Solvent The substance that dissolves the solute and makes a solution.
States of matter The three different physical forms of matter-solid
Surfactants A contraction of surface active agents; substanc3es that allow oil and water to mix
Suspensions Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid.
Thioglycolic acid A colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solutions
Volatile alcohols Alcohols that evaporate easily.
Volatile organic compounds Abbreviated VOCs; compound that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile).
Water-in-oil emulsion Abbreviated W/O emulsion; water droplets are emulsified in oil.
electrons Subatomic particles with a negative charge.
emulsion An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
glycolic acid An alpha hydroxy acid used in exfoliation and to lower the pH of products.
neutrons Subatomic particles with no charge.
Protons Subatomic particles with a positive charge.
Created by: cvis