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Chemistry ALL

All 4 Sets of Chemistry Words

TermDefinition
atom Smallest unit of matter
neutron Neutrally charged subatomic particle
electron Negatively charged subatomic particle
matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
solid matter that has a definite shape and volume; particles tightly packed and vibrate in place
liquid matter that has a definite volume only; particles loose enough to flow past on another
gas matter without a definite volume or shape; particles very far apart and rapidly moving
molecule the smallest unit of a substance that keeps all of the physical and chemical properties of that substance
element A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
compound chemical compound with 2 or more atoms chemically bonded together
homogeneous mixture physical combination of 2 or more compounds that are so evenly distributed one cannot be seen alone (ex. salt water); also called a solution
heterogeneous mixture physical combination of 2 or more compounds that are not evenly distributed so that one can see individual parts (ex. trail mix)
periodic table A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
group vertical columns of elements on periodic table; elements react similarly and have the same number of valence (outer) electrons except for Trans. Metals
period Horizontal rows on periodic table; elements have the same number of orbitals (shells of electrons)
alkali metals Group 1 elements; highly reactive, explosive in water
noble gases Group 18 elements; nonreactive, will not bond in chemical reactions
period Horizontal rows on periodic table; elements have the same number of orbitals (shells of electrons)
alkali metals Group 1 elements; highly reactive, explosive in water
noble gases Group 18 elements; nonreactive, will not bond in chemical reactions
metal elements that are usually shiny, malleable, ductile, and good conductors
nonmetal elements that are usually brittle, dull, and poor conductors
metalloid elements that share some properties of metals and nonmetals; are usually semiconductors (can conduct with certain circumstances)
malleable able to be hammered into a shape
ductile able to be stretched into a wire
Dmitri Mendeleev created the periodic table in a way we still use today
Atomic symbol 2 or 3 letter code for an element
atomic number number of protons in an element; the upper number on the Periodic Table
atomic mass number of protons and neutrons on the Periodic Table; the lower number of the Periodic Table
valence electrons outer most electrons, can be told by the one's place of the group number (except for the transition metals)
orbitals number of shells of electrons, can be told by the period number
Periodicity The repetition of similar properties in chemical elements, as indicated by their positioning in the periodic table
physical change change that only changes appearance of matter
pH chemical property; 0-14 scale of acidity/basicity
melting point temperature at which something begins to turn to liquid; same as freezing point
boiling point temperature at which something begins to turn to a gas; same as condensation point
density amount of matter in a certain amount of matter
conductivity ability to pass energy
chemical change change that rearranges atoms into something completely different
precipitate sign of chemical change; solid forms in a solution
combustible able to be burned
physical properties properties that can be measured/observed without changing the matter being studied
chemical properties properties that can only be measured/observed while changing the matter being studied
exothermic reaction chemical reaction in which energy is released, temperature goes up
endothermic reaction chemical reaction in which energy is absorbed, temperature goes down
reactivity willingness to go through a chemical change
Law of Conservation of Mass mass cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed/rearranged
reactant beginning compounds/elements of a chemical reaction
product ending compounds/elements of a chemical reaction
coefficient large numbers in front of a chemical formula to tell how many of the whole chemical formula there are
subscript small number following a chemical formula to tell how many of a certain piece there is (ex. H2O, there are 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom)
closed system A system in which no matter is allowed to enter or leave
open system A system in which matter can enter from or escape to the surroundings.
arrow in a chemical equation means, "yields," not "Equals"
Created by: fawsha
 

 



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