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|Unity of Place
|German natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt’s notion that in a particular locale/ region intricate connections exist among climate, geology, biology, human cultures. Foundation- mod. geography, integrative discipline marked by a spatial perspective.
|Aboriginal or native; an example would be the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas.
|High-elevation plateau, basin, or valley between even higher mountain ranges, especially in the Andes of South America.
|One society or culture group taking land from another.
|Powerful religious movement-arose in S. A. (1950s), gained followers throughout the global periphery. A belief system, based on a blend of Christian faith+socialist thinking, interprets teachings of Christ as a quest to liberate the poor from oppression.
|A society in which two or more population groups, each practicing its own culture, live adjacent to one another without mixing inside a single state.
|Farmers who eke out a living on a small plot of land on which they are only able to grow enough food to support their families or at best a small community.
|The indirect capture of images by specially equipped, Earth-orbiting satellites.
|The notion that economic development varies spatially, a central tenet of core-periphery relationships in realms, regions, and lesser geographic entities.
|A venture involving three or more states—political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
|The dominant migration flow from countryside to city that continues to transform the world’s population, most notably in the less advantaged geographic realms.
|Dominated by unlicensed sellers of homemade goods and services, the primitive form of capitalism found in many developing countries that takes place beyond the control of government. The complement to a country’s formal sector.
|Term meaning “neighborhood” in Spanish. Usually refers to an urban community in a Middle or South American city.
|Shantytown on the outskirts or even well within an urban area in Brazil.
|Informal term referring to the world’s most heavily populated cities; in this book, the term refers to a metropolis containing a population of greater than 10 million.
|Central business district (CBD)
|The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
|A measure of inequality within a given area, ranging from 0 to 100. A value of 0 indicates that income is equally distributed across an area’s population; a value of 100 indicates that all income is concentrated in the hands of a single recipient.
|Originating in S. America during 1960s, it was a new way of thinking about economic development and underdevelopment that explained the persistent poverty of certain countries in terms of their unequal relations with other (i.e., rich) countries.
|Territorial embodiment of a successful guerrilla movement. The establishment by antigovernment insurgents of a territorial base in which they exercise full control; thus a state within a state.
|A country whose institutions have collapsed and in which anarchy prevails.
|Policies adhering to an ideology/development strategy that advocates the privatization of state-run companies, lowering of international trade tariffs, reduction of gov. subsidies, cutting of corporate taxes, and overall deregulation of business activity.
|Landlocked location or country
|An int. state wholly surrounded by land. Without coasts, a country is disadvantaged in terms of accessibility to international trade routes, in the scramble for possession of areas of the continental shelf+control of the exclusive economic zone beyond.
|Human Development Index
|A UN index that is a composite measure of life expectancy, education, and income per capita. It is used to rank countries within a four-level classification under this name.
|Chaotic area in southern. S. A. ,surrounds the convergence of Brazil, Argentina+Paraguay. Lawlessness fill this haven for criminal elements, notorious for money laundering, arms, smuggling, drug trafficking-links to terrorist org. money flows to the M. E.
|A country’s largest city—ranking atop its urban hierarchy—most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not in every case) the capital city as well.
|The growing of grapes for the production of wine.
|In political geography, refers to the territorial configuration of a state that is at least six times longer than its average width. Chile is the most prominent example of this shape on the world map.
|Country/countries separating ideological/political adversaries. S. Asia, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan were parts of B. Z. set up btw. British + Russian-Chinese imperial spheres. Thailand was a B. S. Btw. British + French colonial domains in mainland SE Asia
|A place, usually a port city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped; a break-of-bulk point.
|Capital city positioned in actually or potentially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state’s determination to maintain its presence in the area of contention.
|Regional term referring to the fertile savannas of Brazil’s interior Central-W. that make it one of the world’s most promising agricultural frontiers. Soybeans-leading crop,other grains+are expanding. Inadequate transport links to the outside world=prob.
|Undesirable side-effects and/or byproducts of an action. Our case, the downside consequences of dam construction in Brazil’s Amazon Basin in the form of further deforestation, other environmental degradation, and the displacement of existing communities.
|An urban center with a number of attributes that, if augmented by investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland.