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Psych Ch.7

States of Conciousness

conciousness our awareness of ourselves and our environment
biological rhythms periodic psychological fluctuations
circadain rhythm the biological clock; regular bodilt rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
REM sleep rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. AKA paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxes but other body systems are active
alpha waves the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake slate
sleep periodic, natural, reversible loss of conciousness - as distinct from unconciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation
hallucinations flase sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the abscence of an external visual stimulus
delta waves the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
insomnia recurring problems in falling or staying asleep
narcolepsy a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inappropriate times
sleep apnea a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakening
night terrors a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, withing 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered
dream a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind
manifest content according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent content)
latent content according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve
hypnosis a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
posthypnotic amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced durin hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion
posthypnotic suggestion a suggestion, made during the hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors
dissociation a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors t occur simultaneously with others
hidden observer Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experience, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
psychoactive drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
tolerance the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
withdrawl the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence a psychological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawl symptoms when the drug is discontinued
psychological dependence a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
depressants drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
stimulants drugs (such as caffine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions
hallucinogens psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes
ecstasy (MDMA) a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and long-term harm to seratonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
LSD a powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic acid diethylamide)
THC the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
near-death experience an altered state of conciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
dualism the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities tht interact
monism the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
Created by: Ascuba