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South America Vocab
|Unity of Place
|The great German natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt’s notion that in a particular locale or region intricate connections exist among climate, geology, biology, and human cultures.
|Aboriginal or native; an example would be the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas.
|High-elevation plateau, basin, or valley between even higher mountain ranges, especially in the Andes of South America.
|One society or culture group taking land from another.
|A powerful religious movement that arose in South America during the 1950s, and subsequently gained followers throughout the global periphery.
|A society in which two or more population groups, each practicing its own culture, live adjacent to one another without mixing inside a single state.
|Farmers who eke out a living on a small plot of land on which they are only able to grow enough food to support their families or at best a small community.
|The indirect capture of images by specially equipped, Earth-orbiting satellites.
|The notion that economic development varies spatially, a central tenet of core-periphery relationships in realms, regions, and lesser geographic entities.
|A venture involving three or more states—political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives.
|The dominant migration flow from countryside to city that continues to transform the world’s population, most notably in the less advantaged geographic realms.
|Dominated by unlicensed sellers of homemade goods and services, the primitive form of capitalism found in many developing countries that takes place beyond the control of government. The complement to a country’s formal sector.
|Term meaning “neighborhood” in Spanish. Usually refers to an urban community in a Middle or South American city.
|Shantytown on the outskirts or even well within an urban area in Brazil.
|Informal term referring to the world’s most heavily populated cities; in this book, the term refers to a metropolis containing a population of greater than 10 million.
|Central business district
|The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
|A measure of inequality within a given area, ranging from 0 to 100. A value of 0 indicates that income is equally distributed across an area’s population; a value of 100 indicates that all income is concentrated in the hands of a single recipient.
|theory Originating in South America during the 1960s, it was a way of thinking about economic development and underdevelopment that explained the persistent poverty of certain countries of their unequal relations with other (i.e., rich) countries.
|Territorial embodiment of a successful guerrilla movement. The establishment by antigovernment insurgents of a territorial base in which they exercise full control; thus a state within a state.
|A country whose institutions have collapsed and in which anarchy prevails.
|Neo Liberal policies
|Policies adhering to an ideology or development strategy that advocates the privatization of state-run companies, lowering of international trade tariffs, reduction of government subsidies, cutting of corporate taxes of business activity.
|An interior state wholly surrounded by land. Without coasts, such a country is disadvantaged in terms of accessibility to international trade routes, and in the scramble for possession of areas of the continental shelf.
|Human development index
|A UN index that is a composite measure of life expectancy, education, and income per capita. It is used to rank countries within a four-level classification under this name.
|The turbulent and chaotic area in southern South America that surrounds the convergence of Brazil, Argentina, and Paraguay. Lawlessness pervades this haven for criminal elements
|A country’s largest city—ranking atop its urban hierarchy—most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not in every case) the capital city as well.
|In political geography, refers to the territorial configuration of a state that is at least six times longer than its average width. Chile is the most prominent example of this shape on the world map.