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Chapter 2

primate cities a country's largest city-ranking atop its urban hierarchy-most expensive of the national culture and is usually the capital city as well
indigenous aboriginal or native; an example would be the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas.
NAFTA the free-trade area launched in 1994 involving the United States, Canada and Mexico.
borderland general term for a linear zone that parallels a political boundary. the most dynamic of these areas, such as those lining the US-Mexico border, are marked by significant cultural and economic interaction across the boundary that separates them.
maquiladoras the term given to a modern industrial plants in MExico's US border zone. these foreign-owned factories assemble imported components and raw materials, and then export finished manufactures, mainly to the USA. Import duties are disappearing under NAFTA.
land bridge a narrow link between 2 large land masses. they are temporary features- at least when measures in geologic time-subject to appearance and disappearance as the land or sea level rises and falls.
archipelago a set of islands grouped closely together, usually elongated into a chain.
hurricane alley the most frequent pathway followed by hurricanes over the past 150 years.
altitudinal zone vertical regions defined by physical-environmental zones at various elevations, particularly in the highlands of South and Middle America.
tropical deforestation the clearing and destruction of tropical rainforests in order to make way for expanding settlement frontiers and the exploitation of new economic opportunities.
culture hearths heartland, source area, or innovation center; place of origin or major culture.
mestizo derived from the Latin word for "mixed", refers to a person of mixed European (white) and Amerindian ancestry.
hacienda a large estate in a spanish speaking country. sometimes equated with the "plantation", but there are important differences between these two types of agricultural enterprises.
plantation a large estate owned by an individual, family, corporation and organized to produce cash crop.
connectivity the degree of direct linkage between a particular location and other locations within regional, national, or global transportation networks.
small-island developing economics the additional disadvantages faces by lower-income island states because of their often small territorial size and population as well as overland inaccessibility.
economics of scale the savings that occur from large-scale production wherein the unit cost of manufacturing decreases as the level of operation enlarges. supermarkets operate on this principle and are able to charge lower prices than small grocery stores.
economic integration the economic benefits of forging supranational partnerships among three or more countries. The European Union (EU) is the prototype; NAFTA and CARICOM are examples in the Middle American realm.
acculturation cultural modification resulting from intercultural borrowing. in cultural geography, the term refers to the change that occurs in the cultural of indigenous peoples when contact is made with a society that is technologically superior.
transculturation culture borrowing and two-way exchanges that occur when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact.
ejidos mexican farmlands redistributed to peasant communities after the Revolution of 1910-1917. The government hold title to the land, but user rights are parceled out to the village communities and then to individuals for cultivation.
biodiversity hot spot a much higher than usual, world-class geographic concentration of natural plant and/or animal species. tropical rainforest environments have dominated, but their recent ravaging by deforestation has had catastrophic results.
offshore banking term referring to financial havens for foreign companies and individuals, who channel their earnings to accounts in such a country (usually an "offshore" island-state) to avoid paying taxes in their home countries.
remittances money earned by emigrants that is sent back to family and friends in their home country, mostly in cash; forms an important part of the economy in poorer countries.
intermodal transport systems one that smoothly integrates different surface transportation modes.the shipping of cargo containers depends on fast and efficient transfers; they can be stacked on decks and in the holds of ships as well as attaching to flatbed railcars/trailer trucks.
social stratification in a layered or stratified society, the population is divided into a hierarchy of social classes. In an industrial society, the working class is at the lower end; elites that possess capital and control that means of production are upper class.
mulatto a person of mixed African (black) and European (white) ancestry.
Popular Geography sets




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