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Chapter 4, 5, and 6

Cultural beliefs the commonly held beliefs in a culture in a culture about right and wrong, what's most important in life, and how life should be lived; it may also include beliefs about where and how life originated and what happens after death
Symbolic inheritance the set of ideas and understandings that are explicit and implicit about people, society, nature, and divinity that serve as a basis to life in a certain culture and its norms and moral standards for behavior
Roles specific social positions in a culture that have certain requirements for behavior, status, and relations with others that may include roles based on age, gender, and social class
Gender roles cultural beliefs about the kinds of work, appearance, and other aspects of behavior that are different for men and women within a culture
Socialization the process in which people acquire the behaviors and beliefs of the culture they live in, it is mainly implicit
Self-regulation the ability to exercise self-control to restrain impulses and comply with social norms, it's one goal of the socialization process
Sources of meaning the ideas and beliefs that people learn from the socialization process, it's the third outcome that describe what is important, what should be valued, what to live for, and how to explain and offer consolidation for one's morality
Independent self the concept of the self typically found in individualistic cultures in which the self is defined as existing independently of relationships with others with an emphasis on independence, individual freedoms, and individual achievements
Narrow socialization the process in which people in a collectivistic culture learn collectivism, including the values of obedience and conformity, tend to be part of developing countries
Sources of socialization Family, peers and friends, school, community, the workplace, media, the legal system, and the cultural belief system
Custom complex a typical practice in a culture and the cultural beliefs, values, sanctions, rules, motives, and satisfactions that provide the basis for it
Conventional reasoning Kohlberg's second level of moral development in which a person is less self-focused and supports the value of conforming to the moral expectations of others that includes two stages of interpersonal concordance orientation and social system orientation.
Postconventional reasoning Kohlberg's third level of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on one's own independent judgments instead of self-focused judgments or considerations of what others see as right or wrong
Racial pride messages messages that you should be proud to be a member of your race, may be taught through conversation or other ways like books
Self-worth messages messages that you are special because of who you are, It doesn't have explicit content about race but focuses on individual traits
Egalitarian messages messages that people should be treated fairly and equally
Role preparation an outcome of socialization that includes preparation for occupational roles, gender roles, and roles in institutions such as marriage and parenthood
Interdependent self the concept of the self that is typically found in collectivistic cultures in which the self is defined by roles and relationships within the group
Preconventional reasoning Kohlberg's first level of moral development with moral reasoning based on the perception of the likelihood of rewards and punishments that includes two stages that are punishment and obedience orientation and individualism and purpose orientation.
Moralistic Therapeutic Deism beliefs that a God exists who created the world and maintains it while watching over human life on earth, God wants people to be good, nice, and fair to each other
Behavioral messages Taking youth to events dealing with race, i.e. festivals
Racial barrier messages messages teaching adolescents about the existence of racial discrimination
Coping with discrimination messages messages that involve teaching adolescents how to deal with discrimination, may involve religion/spirituality
The cultural critique of Kohlberg •Kohlberg's coding system is biased toward Western values. •Secular bias •Children learn moral beliefs specific to their culture.
Racial socialization The content of race-related messages and the process by which they are transmitted inter-generationally that note how communication, interactions, safety, etc. happen that can be explicit & Implicit and formally and informally
Adelson's cognitive changes and political development These changes involve 3 important developments that Adelson called cognitive mode that means a decline in support for authoritarian political systems and the development of the ability to use ideology.
Active racial socialization parent-initiated race-related teachings to their adolescent for the purpose of preparing the adolescent for cultural growth and providing a "buffer" to societal injustices
Responsive racial socialization use of racial socialization in direct response to an adolescent-initiated interaction (e.g., questions raised by adolescent) or situation initiated (e.g., social exclusion, racial conflict) in an attempt to provide a culturally affirming resolution
Passive racial socialization parent's underutilization of racial socialization despite knowing its importance
Sex the biological status and traits of being male or female
Gender the social categories of male and female that can be influenced by social and cultural beliefs rather than biological traits
Gender socialization the process in which cultures communicate gender expectations to children and adolescents, it may be communicated through a variety of sources including families, friends, peers, schools, and the media
Communal manhood term coined by Anthony Rotundo to describe the norm of manhood found in the 17th and 18th centuries in colonial America in which the focus of gender expectations for adolescent boys was on them preparing to assume adult role responsibilities
Self-made manhood Anthony Rotundo's term for the norm of manhood in the 19th century in America in which males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood
Passionate manhood Anthony Rotundo's term for the norm of manhood in the 20th century U.S. in which self-expression and self-enjoyment replaced the previous values of self-control and self-denial young males should learn during the course of becoming a man
Gender intensification hypothesis hypothesis proposed by psychologist Mary Ellen Lynch that psychological and behavioral differences between males and females become more pronounced in adolescence because of intensified socialization pressures to conform to gender roles
Differential gender socialization the term for socializing males and females according to different expectations about what attitudes and behaviors are appropriate for each gender
Gender identity Children's understanding of themselves and their gender as male or female, it develops into a way to organize information from the world i.e. girl toys and boy toys
Self-socialization In gender socialization, it's the way that children seek to maintain consistency between the norms they're learned about gender and their behavior
Gender schema theory theory in which gender is viewed as one of the main ways that people organize information about the world
Expressive traits personality traits like gentle and yielding that are often associated with females that emphasize emotions and relationships
Instrumental traits personality traits like self-reliant and forceful often associated with males that emphasize action and accomplishment
Androgyny a combination of masculine and feminine traits
Gender nonconforming people who typically identify as male or female but whose behaviors are androgynous to the point that it falls outside of conventional norms
Transgender people whose self-identification does not match their biological sex
Marianismo the belief common in Catholic cultures that females should emulate the Virgin Mary by being submissive and self-denying
Machismo the belief that manhood should be reflected in males acting as dominant, common in Latino cultures
Manhood Adolescent boys in traditional cultures achieve manhood when they have the required skills of providing, protecting, and procreating
Social roles theory theory that social roles for males and females enhance or suppress different abilities so that males and females develop different skills and attitudes that lead to gender-specific behaviors
Eating disorders Unhealthy eating practices influenced by distorted body image, psychological disorders that can affect health. Present predominantly in teenage girls.
Anorexia Nervosa eating disorder in which one is obsessed with body weight that typically begins with dieting but continues to a point that threatens health and well-being and can be fatal.
Bulimia Nervosa an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Stereotype a belief that others have certain characteristics as a result of being members of specific groups
Saying goodbye to binary gender Gender binary- system in which train associated with males and masculinity are ranked higher than those of women and femininity that shows males and females as very different from each other based on biology.
Intersex A general term used to refer to individuals born with, or who develop naturally in puberty, biological sex characteristics which are not typically male or female..
Cisgender Term for someone whose gender identity corresponds to what conventions dictate by assigned sex.
Gender dysphoria Distress and mismatch between genetic sex (female, male), sex of rearing (decision parents make), and gender identity (whether individual identifies as man or woman/boy or girl) does not agree,
Suicide 3rd leading cause of death following fatal accidents and homicides among individuals 11-24 years old. •Many attempts related to emotional instability due to gender identity issues or sexual orientation
Gender transgression Carly Mitchell •Gender-fluid- situation in which one's body and mind don't conform to the gender binary, may have masculine and feminine traits
Trans Sam Amore •Transgender/transsexual- one doesn't identity as their assigned sex, transsexual is an outdated term •Genderqueer/gender non-conforming/non-binary- a person who doesn't identitfy within the gender binary
Toilets, bowties, gender and me Audrey Mason-Hyde Gender can be similar to style; constantly evolving and changing. It's not always fixed, people can identify as no gender/non-binary as well.
Normal distribution or bell curve the bell-shaped curve that represents many human characteristics with most people around the average and gradually decreasing portions towards the extremes
Meta-analysis a statistical technique that combines the data from several studies into one comprehensive statistical analysis
Effect size the difference between two groups in a meta-analysis that is represented by the letter d
Video: Self-Conceptions in Adolescence •Marty- likes sports, has many friends, happiest when he's with friends •Darian- likes school, .increased physical abilities, good relationships with parents •Lucy- enjoys helping others/volunteering, good relationships with siblings and parents
Actual self one's perception of themselves as they are instead of how they could be
Possible selves A person's conception of the self as it potentially may be. May include both an ideal self and a feared self.
Ideal self the person an adolescent would like to be i.e. popular or very successful, it is a possible self
Feared self the person an adolescent imagines that it is possible to be but dreads becoming i.e. an alcoholic, it is a possible self
False self self a person may present to others while realizing that it does not represent what he or she is actually thinking and feeling that is more likely to occur in adolescence i.e. when dating, on social media
Self-esteem one's overall sense of worth and well-being that is related to self-image, self-concept, and self-perception or the way people view and evaluate themselves
Baseline self-esteem Rosenberg's term for one's stable, enduring sense of worth and well-being
Barometric self-esteem The fluctuating sense of worth and well-being people have as they respond to different thoughts, experiences, and interactions in the course of a day.
Harter's eight domains of adolescent self-image •Scholastic competence •Social acceptance from others •Athletic competence •Physical appearance because of its emphasis during adolescence •Job competence •Romantic appeal •Behavioral conduct •Close friendship
Self-esteem in emerging adulthood •Tends to rise •Focus on physical appearance lessens, improved relations with parents increase feelings of acceptance •More control and independence over the social contexts of everyday life
Causes of self-esteem •Feeling accepted and approved by others (esp. peers and parents) •Peers have significant influence during adolescence •Adolescents' relationships with parents remains critical in their self-perceptions
Effects of self-esteem •Doing well in school enhances self-esteem which in turn gives confidence that promotes further school success and motivation.
Response bias In a questionnaire, it's the tendency to choose the same response for all items.
Internal consistency A statistical calculation that shows the extent to which the different items in a scale or subscale are answered in a similar way
Identity one's perceptions of their characteristics and abilities, their beliefs and values, their relations with others, and how their lives fit into the world around them.
Social loneliness one of Weiss's types of loneliness that occurs when people feel they lack a sufficient number of social contacts and relationships
Emotional loneliness one of Weiss's types of loneliness that occurs when people feel that they have relationships that lack sufficient closeness and intimacy
Identity vs. identity confusion Erikson's term for the crisis typically found in adolescence in which people may follow either the healthy path of creating a clear sense of who they are and how they fit within the world
Criticism of Erikson's theory People don't always have a definite identity by the end of adolescence. Identity can evolve and change across the lifespan. It is biased towards Western cultures.
Identifications relationships formed with others, especially in childhood, in which love for another person leads one to want to be like that person
Psychohistory the psychological analysis of important historical figures
Psychosocial moratorium Erikson's term for the gap between childhood security and adult autonomy that adolescents experience as part of their exploration of possible selves
Negative identity Erikson's term for an identity based on what one has seen portrayed as most undesirable or dangerous
Identity status model Marcia's approach to conceptualizing and researching identity development that categorizes people into one of four identity categories based on exploration and commitment of foreclosure, diffusion, moratorium, or achievement
Intimacy vs. isolation Erikson's stage in which the healthy path involves people committing themselves to another person in an long-term intimate relationship or the unhealthy path: of becoming isolated as a consequence of an inability to form an enduring intimate relationship
Diffusion An identity status that combines no exploration with no commitment of trying to form and explore various identities
Moratorium an identity status that involves exploration but no commitment that is characterized by young people trying various personal, occupational, and ideological possibilities
Foreclosure An identity status in which young people have not engaged in exploring a variety of possibilities but have committed themselves to certain choices regardless
Achievement The identity status of young people who have made definite personal, occupational, and ideological choices following a period of exploring possible alternatives.
Postmodern identity A concept of identity as complex and highly variable across contexts and over time, that parts of an identity don't always form a consistent self
Assimilation In the formation of an ethnic identity, it is an approach that involves abandoning their ethnic culture and adopting the ways of the majority culture
Ethnic identity Aspect of identity concerning the beliefs and attitudes about what it means to be a member of one's ethnic group; includes the significance/importance of being a member
Marginality In the formation of ethnic identity, the option that involves rejecting one's original culture of origin and feeling rejected by the majority culture
Separation In the formation of ethnic identity, it's the approach that involves only interacting with members of one's own ethnic group and rejecting the ways of the majority culture
Biculturalism In the formation of ethnic identity, the approach that involves developing a dual identity with one based on the ethnic group of origin and one based on the majority culture
Hybrid identity an identity that includes the elements of different cultures
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