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Psych Ch.18 Social

Social Psychology

social psychology the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
attribution theory the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
attitude a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
foot-in-the-door phenomenon the tendency to people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
conformity adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
normative social influence influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
imformational social influence influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
social facilitation improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
social loafing the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
deindividuation the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occuring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
group polarization the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
groupthink the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
prejudice an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
stereotype a generalized (sometime accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
ingroup "Us" - people with whome one shares a common identity
outgroup "Them" - those percieved as different or apart from one's ingroup
ingroup bias the tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
just-world phenomenon the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
aggression any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration-agression principle the principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression
conflict a percieved incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
social trap a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
mere exposure effect the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
passionate love an aroused state od intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
equity a condition in which people recieve from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
self-disclosure revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
altruism unselfish regard for the welfare of others
bystander effect the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
superordinate goals shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Created by: Ascuba