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Psych Vocab Ch. 3

Vocabulary for AP Psychology Chapter Three

chromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
DNA a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
genes the biochemical units of heredity that make up that chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
genome the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in its chromosomes. The human genome has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA
natural selection the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
mutation a random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity
evolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
gender in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male and female
behavior genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
environment every nongenetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
identical twins twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
fraternal twins twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
temperament a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
heritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
interaction the dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity)
molecular genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
norm an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
personal space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
memes self-replicating ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from person to person
X chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two X chromosomes; males have one. An X chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
Y chromosome the sex chromosome found only in males. when paired with an X sex chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
testosterone the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
role a set of expectations (norms) about a social positition, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role a set of expected behaviors for males and for females
gender identity one's sense of being male or female
gender-typing the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of whta it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior according;y
Created by: bailee1435