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Psych Vocab Ch. One

Vocabulary for AP Psychology Chapter One

hindsight bias the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
critical thinking thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
theory an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
hypothesis a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition a statement of the procedures(operations) used to define research variables.
replication repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
survey a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
false consensus effect the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
population all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population.)
random sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation coefficient a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
scatterplot a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
illusory correlation the perception of a relationship where none exists
experiment a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable).
double-blind procedure an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo.
placebo effect experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
experimental condition the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control condition the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment
random assignment assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independent variable the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable the experimental factor -- in psychology, the behavior or mental process -- that is being measured; the variable that may change in response in manipulations of the independent variable
standard deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
culture the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
Created by: bailee1435