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PSYC 300 Chapter 3

Social Beliefs and Judgments

Term Example
misattribution You incorrectly believe that someone's politeness is an expression of romantic interest
attribution theory Ways to explain a person's behavior as perhaps either a result of their characteristics or of their unique environmental circumstances
fundamental attribution error Hank's immediate explanation for his groupmate's tardiness to their meeting is that she just doesn't care about their project, but she was having internet problems in reality.
actor-observer difference Gerald has no reservations when it comes to calling his friends out on their shortcomings, even going so far as to conclude the presence of maladaptive personality traits. When he messes up though, he is quick to blame the situation he is in.
camera perspective bias It is more likely for someone to be convicted of a crime they confessed to if the confession was filmed with them at the focus compared to if the focus was on the interviewer
confirmation bias Blake has an unfounded belief that the kiwi is a superfood. As they research the topic, they prioritize information that supports their belief without really acknowledging the possibility that they're wrong.
illusory correlation You believe in the idea of a soul-mate such that when you think of someone and they happen to call you in that moment, you believe there is a relationship that is more significant than in actuality.
illusion of control You're playing Dungeons & Dragons and you need to roll at least a 17 on a 20 sided die, so you grasp the die in your hands and you carefully throw it to better ensure your favorable roll.
regression toward the average Jill's free throw accuracy is particularly exceptional during one basketball game, but since then she is having trouble performing as well over the course of many games.
misinformation effect You have a conversation with a mutual friend and it seems to have gone well. However, the friend who introduced you to each other tells you that it looked like the conversation was rocky, and you begin to think about how uncomfortable they were.
belief perseverance Your friend believes in the Flat Earth theory, and they place disproportionately more value on the evidence that supports their beliefs rather than the evidence that refutes them.
rosy retrospection As you talk about your respective vacations with your friends, you remember the high points of your trip, but you fail to recall how poor the weather was, how pesky the bugs were, and how you might as well have gotten food poisoning.
overconfidence phenomenon You have an exam scheduled in one month and you believe that it's enough time to prepare. It's the day of the exam, you preview the questions, and you slowly realize that you're sweating more and more.
intuition "The heart has its reasons which reason does not know." We know more than we know we know.
priming When previously exposed to a fishy smell without their knowledge, participants in a cooperative experiment were less inclined to work together.
Created by: StephenV