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Chapter 12

Personalities

QuestionAnswer
Fixations prominent conflicts and concerns focused on wishes from a particular period
Anal Stage stage occurring roughly around ages 2 or 3, which is characterized by conflicts with parents over compliance and defiance
Regression reverting to conflicts of models of managing emotions characteristics of an earlier particular stage
Identification making another person apart of ones self by imitating that persons behavior; accepting his/her values
Oedipus Complex in freudian theory, process that occurs, where child desire an exclusive, sensual/sexual relationship with the opposite sex parent
Structural Model Freuds model of conflict between desires and the dictates of conscience or the constraints of reality, which possess three sets of mental forces: id, ego, superego
Id the reservoir of sexual and aggressive energy. It is characterized by primary process thinking
Primary Process Thinking when ideas connect in peoples mind through related ideas, its wishful and unrealistic
Structural Model Freuds model of conflict between desires and the dictates of conscience or the constraints of reality, which possess three sets of mental forces: id, ego, superego
Superego acts as conscience and source of ideas
Ego balances desire, reality, and mortality
Defense Mechanisms unconscious mental processes aimed at protecting a person from experiencing unpleasant emotions
Repression DM, where painful emotions are kept from conscious awareness
Denial DM, person refuses to acknowledge realities or emotions
Projection DM, when a person turns unacceptable feelings on others around them
Reaction Formation DM when a person turns unacceptable feelings into their opposite
Sublimation DM, involves converting sexual or aggressive impulses into socially acceptable activities
Rationalization DM, involves explaining away actions in a seemingly logical way to avoid uncomfortable feelings
Passive Aggression indirect expression of anger towards others
Object Relations Theories propose the need for relatedness is a central motive in humans and that people will distort their personalities to maintain ties to important people in their lives
Projective Tests a personality assessment method in which subjects are confronted with ambiguous stimulus and asked to define it in some way
What do Projective Tests assume? assumes that when people are faced with unstructured stimulus, they will project their true thoughts and emotions
Herman Rorschach created the Rorschach inkblot test
Rorschach inkblot test a projective personality test in which a subject views a set of inkblots and tells the tester what it looks like
Contributors and Limitations of Psychodynamic Theories 1. Unconscious cognitive, emotional, and motivational processes, 2. Ambivalence, conflict, and compromise, 3. Child hood experiences, 4. Mental representations of self, 5.Development of the capacity to regulate impulses
Cognitive-Social Theories personality reflects a constant interplay between environmental demands and the way the individual processes information about the self and the world
Behavior-outcome expectancies beliefs that a certain behavior will lead to a particular outcome
Self-efficacy expectancies a person’s convictions that he or she can perform the actions necessary to produce an intended behavior
Self Regulation setting goals, evaluation of one’s own performance and adjusting ones behaviors flexibly to achieve those goals in the context of ongoing feedback
Cognitive social theories over estimate what? emotionality and rationality
Traits emotional, cognitive, and behavioral tendencies that constitute underlying dimensions of personality on which individuals vary
Five Factor Model a trait theory which asserts that personality consists of five traits; openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Walter Mischel discovered considerable evidence of the inconsistency of peoples behavior across situations and showed that most personality tests had only modest correlations with behaviors in the real world
Person-by-situation interactions process by which some personality dispositions are activated only by certain circumstances
Carl Rogers believed that humans are basically good but that their personalities become distorted by interpersonal experiences, especially in childhood
Phenomenal Experiences the way individuals experience reality and experience themselves and their world
What is the fundamental tool of psychology? empathy
What did Carl Rogers Propose? that the primary motivation in humans is an actualizing tendency
Actualizing Tendency a desire to fulfill the full range of needs that humans experience
Existentialism focuses on each individuals subjective existence
Contributions and Limitations of Humanistic Theories most important is a humans need to know the meaning of live
Two limitations of humanistic theories 1. It doesn’t offer a comprehensive theory of personality in the same way that psychodynamic and cognitive social theories do. 2. Its not reliable
Created by: hcharen