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Chapter 1

North America

TermDefinition
Borderland A political boundary that parallels a linear zone.
Transition zone An area where 2 or more realms join with different cultures.
Physiographic region A region within which there are natural landscape homogeneity, expressed by surface relief, vegetation, soils, and climate.
Continentality The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior potions of the world’s land masses.
Rain shadow effect The relative dryness in the areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting fro. orographic precipitation.
Federation A country where a central government represents the sub national entities within a nation-state where they have common interests such as defense, foreign affairs, allowing them to retain their own identities
Aquifer An underground reservoir of water contained within a porous chain.
Fossil fuel The energy sources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum. Formed by geologic compression and transformation.
Urban system A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
American Manufacturing Belt North America’s near-rectangular core area.
Distribution center A centralized focus of economic activity specializing in the distribution of goods.
Intermodal connections Facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another.
Outer city The non-central-city portion of the American metropolis.
Deindustrialization process By which companies relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions or countries with cheaper labor.
Central business district The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the many tall buildings.
Information economy The new, increasing dominant, postindustrial economy that is manufacturing in the most highly advanced countries.
GPS Global Positioning System The orbiting-satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information, anywhere on Earth where there is a line of sight.
Gentrification The upgrading of an older residential area through private reinvestment, usually in downtown area of a central city.
Neighborhood effect The impact of one’s neighborhood on an individual’s outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life chances.
Residential geography The spatial distribution of a residential population, often used by urban geographers to describe the clustering of various social groups.
Sunbelt The popular name given to the southern tier of the United States, has warmer climate and has been attracting large numbers of relocating people.
Migration A change in residence intended to be permanent.
Electoral geography The spatial distribution of political preferences as expressed in voting behavior for political parties or candidates. Mapping of election results is the foundation.
Melting pot Traditional characterization of American society as a blend of numerous immigrant ethnic groups that over time were assimilated into a single group.
First Nations Name given Canada’s indigenous peoples of American descent, whose US counterparts are called Native Americans.
World- City A large city with particularly significant international linkages.
Technopole A planned techno-industrial complex that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy.
Pacific Rim A group of countries and components of countries sharing the following, they face Pacific Ocean, exhibit high level of economy, industrialization and urbanization. Imports and exports mainly move across Pacific waters.
Tar sands The main source of oil from non- liquid petroleum reserves.
Boreal Forest The subarctic, mostly coniferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore.
Created by: pl243452
 

 



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