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Chapter 1

North America

Borderland linear zone parallel to political boundary. EX: US-Mexico border are marked with cultural/economic interaction across the boundary that separates them
Transition zone spatial change where peripheries of 2 adjacent realms/regions join; w/ gradual shift.
rhysiographic region region with substantial natural landscape, homogeneity, shown by certain degree of uniformatality in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils
Continentality the greater distance from the ocean, the more extremes of temperature. continental interiors usually are dry when the distance from oceanic moisture is considerable
Rain shadow effect relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges, from orographic precipitation, where moist air masses are forced to drop most water as they cross the highlands
federations country adhering to political framework: central govt. represents sub national entities in nation state, with common interests etc, yet allows these entities to keep identities with own laws+policies+customs
aquifer underground reservoir of water contained within a porous water bearing rock layer
fossil fuel energy resources of coal, natural gas +petroleum (oil) formed by geologic compression and transformation of tiny plant and animal organisms
urban system hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area (country)
American manufacturing belt North Americas. near rectangular corea area whose corners are boston, milwaukee st. louis and baltimore
distribution center focus on economic activity in distribution of goods, situated as a major hub on its regional transportation network. EX Atlanta, Georgia, with good highway, rail, and air freight connections to surrounding southeastern US
intermodal connections facilities+activities related to transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another EX: loading of containers from ship directly onto truck/rail car
outer city non central city portion of american metropolis no longer “sub” to the “urb” this outer ring was transformed into full fledged city during the late 20th century
de industrialization process companies relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions/countries with cheaper labor , leaving newly deindustrialized region to convert to service economy while struggling with unemployment + meeting +retaining needs of workforce
central business district d owntown heart of central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce+ and clustering of tallest buildings
information economy in new economy, maturing in most highly advanced countries of North America, Europe, and Pacific Rim, here traditional industry is covered by higher tech productive complex focused on information related activites
GPS global positioning system orbiting satellite based navigation system, provides locational and time information anywhere on or near Earths surface where there is onobstructed line of sight to 4 or more GPS satellites
gentrification upgrading of an older residential area through private reinvestment usually in downtown area of a central city. usually involves discipline of lower income residents who cant afford heightened costs of living + conflicts are common
neighborhood effect impact of ones neighborhood on an individuals outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life changes
residential geography spatial distribution of residential population. term often used by urban geographers to describe clustering of social groups into neighborhoods that form residential fabric of cities+suburbs
sunbelt name given to south US, anchored from mega states California +Texas+Florida for its warmth, better recreational opportunities + other amenities have been attracting people +activities since 60’s. broader versions: West US, Colorado, Pacific Northwest
migration change in residence intended to be permanent
electoral geography spatial distribution of political preferences expressed in voting behavior for political parties/canadates. Mapping of election results is foundation.
melting pot characterization of American society as blend of immigrant ethnic groups that over time came into single society. This notion has had challenges among social scientists, now more difficult to sustain growing complexity + sheer scale of US ethnic mosaic
first nations name given canada’s indigenous peoples of american descent whose US counterparts are called native americans
world city large city with significant international economic links with high thats high ranking in global urban system. Leading world cities: London, NY, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, Paris
technopole planned techno industrial complex (Californias Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures products of postindustrial information economy
pacific rim countries and parts of countries (clockwise on map from New Zealand to Chile) sharing facing Pacific ocean, exhibit relatively high levels of economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; imports and exports mainly move across Pacific waters
tar sands main source of oil from non liquid petroleum reserves. oil mixed w/ sand+requires a lot of mining. largest deposits in Northeast of canada’s prov. Alberta. With environmental degradation from strip mining +waste triggered limit of mining this resource
boreal forest subarctic mostly coniferous snow forest that blankets canada south of tundra that lines the Arctic shore known s taiga in russia.
Created by: pl251431
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