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|General term for a linear zone that parallels a political boundary. The most dynamic of these areas, such as those lining the U.S.-Mexico border, are marked by significant cultural and economic interaction across the boundary that separates them.
|An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another.
|A region within which there prevails substantial natural-landscape homogeneity, expressed by a certain degree of uniformity in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils.
|The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the world’s landmasses. The greater the distance from the moderating influence of an ocean, the greater the extreme in summer and winter temperatures. Tend to be dry.
|Rain shadow effect
|The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content as they cross the highlands.
|A country adhering to a political framework wherein a central gov’t represents the various subnational entities within a nation-state where they have common interests—defense, foreign affairs, and the like—allows these entities to have own identity/rules.
|An underground reservoir of water contained within a porous, water-bearing rock layer.
|The energy resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum (oil), so named collectively because they were formed by the geologic compression and transformation of tiny plant and animal organisms.
|A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
|American Manufacturing Belt
|North America’s near-rectangular core area, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Baltimore.
|A centralized focus of economic activity specializing in the distribution of goods, situated as a major hub on its regional transportation network. Ex. ATL, GA, with its outstanding highway, rail, and air-freight connections to the surrounding SE US.
|Facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another (e.g., the loading of containers from a ship directly onto a truck or railcar).
|The non-central-city portion of the American metropolis; no longer “sub” to the “urb,” this outer ring was transformed into a full-fledged city during the late twentieth century.
|Companies use other regions or countries for cheaper labor, leaving the newly-deindustrialized region to convert to a service economy while struggling with the accompanying effects of more unemployment and meeting the retraining needs of its workforce.
|Central business district (CBD)
|The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
|new, increasingly dominant, postindustrial economy that’s maturing in the highest advanced countries of North America, Europe, Pacific Rim. Here, traditional industry’s being eclipsed by higher-tech productive complex focused on info-related activities.
|GPS (Global Positioning System)
|The orbiting-satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information, anywhere on or near the Earth’s surface where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
|upgrading of an older residential area through private reinvestment, usually in the downtown area of a central city. usually for low income residents, can’t afford costs of living, and conflicts aren’t uncommon as such neighborhood change takes place.
|The impact of one’s neighborhood on an individual’s outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life chances.
|The spatial distribution of a residential population. The term is most often used by urban geographers to describe the clustering of various social groups into the neighborhoods that form the residential fabric of cities and suburbs.
|name given to the southern tier of the US, which is anchored by the mega-States of CA, TX, and FL. Its warmer climate, superior recreational opportunities, and other amenities have been attracting large #s of relocating ppl and activities since the 1960s
|A change in residence intended to be permanent.
|The spatial distribution of political preferences as expressed in voting behavior for political parties and/or candidates. The mapping of election results (see Box 1-8) is the foundation of electoral geography.
|Where many different ethnic groups, culture, religions and styles are mixed together.
|Name given Canada’s indigenous peoples of American descent, whose U.S. counterparts are called Native Americans.
|A large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system. Leading world-cities include London, New York, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, and Paris.
|A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California’s Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy.
|Countries that face the Pacific Ocean; they exhibit relatively high levels of economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; their imports and exports mainly move across Pacific waters.
|The main source of oil from non-liquid petroleum reserves. The oil is mixed with sand and requires massive open-pit mining as well as a costly, complicated process to extract it.
|The subarctic, mostly coniferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore; known as the taiga in Russia.