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Chapter 1

Borderland General turn for linear zone that parallels a political boundary.
Transition Zone An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join
Physiographic Region The number of people per unit area of arable land
Continentality The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the world’s landmasses
Rain Shadow Affect The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation
Federation A country adhering to a political framework wherein a central government represents the various subnational entities
Aquifer An underground reservoir of water contained within a porous, water-bearing rock layer
Fossil Fuel The energy resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum (oil), so named collectively because they were formed by the geologic compression
Urban System A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country
American Manufacturing Belt North America’s near-rectangular core area, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Baltimore
Distribution Center A centralized focus of economic activity specializing in the distribution of goods, situated as a major hub on its regional transportation network
Intermodal Connections Facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another
Outer city The non-central-city portion of the American metropolis; no longer “sub” to the “urb.
Deindustrialization A process in which companies relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions or countries with cheaper labor
Central business District The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce
Information economy The new postindustrial economy that is maturing in the most highly advanced countries of North America, Europe, and the Pacific Rim
Gentrification The upgrading of an older residential area through private reinvestment, usually in the downtown area of a central city
Neighborhood effect The impact of one’s neighborhood on an individual’s outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life chances
Residential geography The spatial distribution of a residential population
Sunbelt The popular name given to the southern tier of the United States, which is anchored by the mega-States of California, Texas, and Florida
Migration A change in residence intended to be permanent
Electoral geography The spatial distribution of political preferences as expressed in voting behavior for political parties and/or candidates
Melting pot Traditional characterization of American society as a blend of immigrant ethnic groups that over time were assimilated into a single societal mainstream
First Nations Name given Canada’s indigenous peoples of American descent, whose U.S. counterparts are called Native Americans
World-City A large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system
Technopole A planned techno-industrial complex that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy
Pacific Rim A far-flung group of countries and components of countries that face the Pacific and exhibit high levels of economic development
Tar sands The main source of oil from non-liquid petroleum reserves
Boreal forest The subarctic, mostly coniferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore; known as the taiga in Russia
GPS The satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information
Created by: pl237261