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Chapter 1

Borderland General term for a linear zone that parallels a political boundary. Most dynamic is Mexico and US border, change in economy and culture across each border
Transition zone An area of spatial change where the peripheries of 2 adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one or another
Physiographic region A region within which there prevails substantial natural-landscape homogeneity, expressed by a certain degree of uniformity in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils
Continentality Variation of continental effect on air temperature in interior portions of world land masses; the greater distance from an ocean, the greater extreme in summer and winter temperatures; tend to be dry when distance from ocean moisture becomes considerable
Rain Shadow Effect The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content as they cross the highlands.
Federation Country political framework where a central gov’t rep. various entities within nation-state having common interests—defense, foreign affairs, but allows various entities to retain own identities and to have own laws, policies, customs in certain spheres
Aquifer An underground reservoir of water contained within a porous, water-bearing rock layer
Fossil Fuel The energy resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum (oil), so named collectively because they were formed by the geologic compression and transformation of tiny plant and animal organisms
Urban System A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country
American Manufacturing Belt North America’s near-rectangular core area, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Baltimore
Distribution Center centralized focus of economic activity specializing in distribution of goods, situated as major hub on its regional transportation network. Atlanta, Georgia, w/outstanding highway, rail, and airfreight connections to surrounding SE U.S. is classic ex.
Intermodal connections Facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another (e.g., the loading of containers from a ship directly onto a truck or railcar). Intermodal transport system
Outer City The non-central-city portion of the American metropolis; no longer “sub” to the “urb,” this outer ring was transformed into a full-fledged city during the late twentieth century.
Deindustrialization Process by which companies relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions/countries with cheaper labor, leaving the new deindustrialized region convert to service economy while struggling w/ effects of increased unemployment &meeting the needs of its workforce
Central Business District (CBD) The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
Information economy The new dominant, postindustrial economy that is maturing in most high advanced countries of North America, Europe& Pacific Rim. Here, traditional industry is eclipsed by a higher-technology productive complex focused on information-related activities.
GPS (Global Positioning System) The orbiting-satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information, anywhere on or near the Earth’s surface where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
Gentrification The upgrading of old residential area by private reinvestment, usually in CBD. Involves displacement of established lower-income residents, who can't afford the high costs of living, and conflicts aren't uncommon as such neighborhood change takes place
Neighboring effect The impact of one’s neighborhood on an individual’s outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life chances.
Residential geography The spatial distribution of a residential population. The term is most often used by urban geographers to describe the clustering of various social groups into the neighborhoods that form the residential fabric of cities and suburbs.
Sunbelt name South tier of US, State: CA, TX, FL. Warm climate, better opportunities, and amenities have been attracting large # of relocating ppl and activities since1960s; broader definitions of the Sunbelt also include western US, even CO, coastal Pacific NW
Migration change in residence intended to be permanent.
Electoral Geography the spatial distribution of political preferences as expressed in voting behavior for political parties and/or candidates. The mapping of election results (see Box 1-8) is the foundation of electoral geography.
Melting pot Traditional characterization of American society as blend of numerous immigrant ethnic groups that over time were assimilated into single societal mainstream. Challenging to keep up with
First Nations Name given Canada’s indigenous peoples of American descent, whose U.S. counterparts are called Native Americans.
World City A large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system. Leading world-cities include London, New York, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, and Paris.
Technopole A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California’s Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy.
Pacific Rim group of countries and parts of countries (clockwise on map: New Zealand > Chile) have criteria: face Pacific Ocean; exhibit high levels of economic development, industrialization, and urbanization; imports and exports mainly move across Pacific waters
Tar Sands main source of oil from non-liquid petroleum reserves. The oil is mixed w/sand and requires huge open-pit mining&complicated process to extract. Largest in Canada, Alberta. Oil prices are up, but extraction has limited the amount that can be taken out.
Boreal forests The subarctic, mostly coniferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore; known as the taiga in Russia.
Created by: Miranda_Tant
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