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Chapter 1

TermDefinition
Borderland General term for linear zone that parallels a political boundary.
Transition Zones An area of spatial change where the peripheries of two adjacent realms or regions join; marked by a gradual shift (rather than a sharp break) in the characteristics that distinguish these neighboring geographic entities from one another.
Physiographic Regions A region within which there prevails substantial natural-landscape homogeneity, expressed by a certain degree of uniformity in surface relief, climate, vegetation, and soils.
Continentality The variation of the continental effect on air temperatures in the interior portions of the world’s landmasses, dif. between continental and marine climates characterized by the increased range of temperatures that occurs over land compared with water.
Rain Shadow Effect The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges resulting from orographic precipitation, wherein moist air masses are forced to deposit most of their water content as they cross the highlands.
Federation A country adhering to a political framework wherein a central government represents the various subnational entities within a nation-state where they have common interests—defense, foreign affairs, and the like—yet allows independence in internal affairs.
Aquifer An underground reservoir of water contained within a porous, water-bearing rock layer.
Fossil Fuel The energy resources of coal, natural gas, and petroleum (oil), so named collectively because they were formed by the geologic compression and transformation of tiny plant and animal organisms.
Urban System A hierarchical network or grouping of urban areas within a finite geographic area, such as a country.
American Manufacturing Belt North America’s near-rectangular core area, whose corners are Boston, Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Baltimore.
Distribution Center A centralized focus of economic activity specialized in the distribution of goods, A distribution center is a node in a supply network which can be used for: storing goods, processing products, creating , assembling shipments, among other things.
Intermodal connections Facilities and activities related to the transfer of goods in transit from one transportation mode to another (e.g., the loading of containers from a ship directly onto a truck or railcar).
Outer City The non-central-city portion of the American metropolis; no longer “sub” to the “urb,” this outer ring was transformed into a full-fledged city during the late twentieth century.
Deindustrialization Process Companies relocate manufacturing jobs to other regions or countries with cheaper labor, leaving the newly-deindustrialized region to convert to a service while struggling with accompanying effects of increased unemployment, meeting the retraining needs.
Central Business District The downtown heart of a central city; marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
Information Economy The new, increasingly dominant, economy that is maturing in the most highly advanced countries of North America, Europe, the Pacific Rim. Industry is being eclipsed by a higher-technology productive complex focused on information-related activity.
GPS (Global Positioning System) The orbiting-satellite-based navigation system that provides locational and time information, anywhere on or near the Earth’s surface where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
Gentrification The upgrading of an older residential by private reinvestment, usually in the downtown area of a central city. Frequently, it involves the displacement of established lower-income residents, cannot afford the heightened costs of living, causes conflict
Neighborhood effect The impact of one’s neighborhood on an individual’s outlook, aspirations, socialization, and life chances.
Residential Geography The spatial distribution of a residential population. The term is most often used by urban geographers to describe the clustering of various social groups into the neighborhoods that form the residential fabric of cities and suburbs.
Sunbelt The popular name given to the southern/western tier of the United States, followed by mega-States such as California. Its warmer climate, superior recreational opportunities, other amenities have been attracting large numbers of relocating people.
Migration A change in residence intended to be permanent.
Electoral Georgraphy The spatial distribution of political preferences as expressed in voting behavior for political parties and/or candidates. The mapping of election results is the foundation of electoral geography.
Melting Pot Traditional characterization of American society as a blend of numerous immigrant ethnic groups that over time were assimilated into a single societal mainstream. Possessing the potential to cause conflict, especially in the previous culture group.
First Nations Name given Canada’s indigenous peoples of American descent, whose U.S. counterparts are called Native Americans.
World-City A large city with particularly significant international (economic) linkages that also has a high ranking in the global urban system. Leading world-cities include London, New York, Tokyo, Shanghai, Singapore, and Paris.
Technopole A planned techno-industrial complex (such as California’s Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial information economy.
Pacific Rim It refers to the geographic area surrounding the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Rim covers the western shores of North America and South America, and the shores of Australia, eastern Asia, and the islands of the Pacific.
Tar Sands Tar sands, oil sands, are a mixture of mostly sand, clay, water, bitume. Requires massive open-pit mining, a costly, complicated process to extract it. The high prices of recent years have led to production, but caused protest to its exploitation.
Boreal Forest The subarctic, mostly coniferous snowforest that blankets Canada south of the tundra that lines the Arctic shore; known as the taiga in Russia.
Created by: fevonderheydt
 

 



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